Abstract

Multiple phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings (MPS-FBGs) are proposed for a novel intensity-type vibration sensing scheme with broadband source based interrogation. In this scheme, the collective and simultaneous operation of the subchannels of MPS-FBG multiplies the total acquired signal power change at a particular channel, considerably enhancing sensitivity. Compared to a standard FBG scheme, our experiment scheme attained significant sensitivity enhancement of nearly 20 dB using 17 phase-shifted FBG. These experimental results agree with the theoretical prediction based on cross-correlation relations. The sensitivity enhancement while retaining the system simplicity would be an attractive option for an economical coarse wavelength division multiplexed (CWDM) vibration sensing system based on a single broadband source.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. J. M. Lopez-Higuera, Handbook of Optical Fibre Sensing Technology (Wiley, 2002) pp. 1-30.
  2. A. I. Azmi, D. Sen, G. D. Peng, "Sensitivity enhancement in composite cavity fiber laser hydrophone," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1844-1850 (2010).
  3. A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, M. A. Davis, "Polarisation-insensitive fibre optic Michelson interferometer," Electron. Lett. 27, 518-520 (1991).
  4. A. Canagasabey, A. Michie, J. Canning, J. Holdsworth, S. Fleming, H,-C. Wang, M. L. Aslund, "A comparison of delayed self-heterodyne interference measurement of laser linewidth using Mach–Zehnder and Michelson interferometers," Sensors 11, 9233-9241 (2011).
  5. L. Pou-Man, L. Kin-Tak, L. Hang-Yin, S. Zhongqing, T. Hwa-Yaw, "Acousto-ultrasonic sensing for delaminated GFRP composites using an embedded FBG sensor," Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 1049-1055 (2009).
  6. H.-P. Loock, W. S. Hopkins, C. Morris-Blair, R. Resendes, J. Saari, N. R. Trefiak, "Recording the sound of musical instruments with FBGs: The photonic pickup," Appl. Opt. 48, 2735-2741 (2009).
  7. D. J. Webb, J. Surowiec, M. Sweeney, D. A. Jackson, L. Gavrilov, J. W. Hand, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Miniature fibre optic ultrasonic probe," Proc. SPIE (1996) pp. 76-80.
  8. B. Lissak, A. Arie, M. Tur, "Highly sensitive dynamic strain measurements by locking lasers to fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 23, 1930-1932 (1998).
  9. N. Takahashi, K. Yoshimura, S. Takahashi, "Detection of ultrasonic mechanical vibration of a solid using fiber Bragg grating," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3134-3138 (2000).
  10. J. G. Liu, C. Schmidt-Hattenberger, G. Borm, "Dynamic strain measurement with a fibre Bragg grating sensor system," Measurement 32, 151-161 (2002).
  11. N. Takahashi, W. Thongnum, S. Takahashi, "Fiber-Bragg-grating vibration sensor with temperature stability using wavelength-variable incoherent light source," Acoust. Sci. Technol. 23, 353-355 (2002).
  12. D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, R. S. Tucker, "Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122-154 (2000).
  13. R. Zengerle, O. Leminger, "Phase-shifted Bragg-grating filters with improved transmission characteristics," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2354-2358 (1995).
  14. M. Morin, M. Poulin, A. Mailloux, F. Trepanier, Y. Painchaud, "Full C-band slope-matched dispersion compensation based on a phase sampled Bragg grating," Proc. OFC (2004) pp. 740.
  15. P. Orr, P. Niewczas, M. Stevenson, J. Canning, "Compound phase-shifted fiber Bragg structures as intrinsic magnetic field sensors," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2667-2673 (2010).
  16. P. Orr, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, P. Niewczas, "Automatable fabrication of dispersion-tailored Bragg gratings for tunable narrowband delays," Electron. Lett. 46, 1283-1284 (2010).
  17. A. Bergonzo, J. Jacquet, D. De Gaudemaris, J. Landreau, A. Plais, A. Vuong, H. Sillard, T. Fillion, O. Durand, H. Krol, A. Accard, I. Riant, "Widely Vernier tunable external cavity laser including a sampled fiber Bragg grating with digital wavelength selection," IEEE Photonic. Technol. Lett. 15, 1144-1146 (2003).
  18. R. Todt, T. Jacke, R. Meyer, J. Adler, R. Laroy, G. Morthier, M.-C. Amann, "Sampled grating tunable twin-guide laser diodes with over 40-nm electronic tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2514-2516 (2005).
  19. G. B. Tait, "Vernier-effect optical interrogation technique for fiber Bragg grating sensors," Appl. Opt. 46, 6879-6884 (2007).
  20. E. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Y. Yu, X. Li, D. Huang, "Ultrahigh-Q microwave photonic filter with Vernier effect and wavelength conversion in a cascaded pair of active loops," Opt. Lett. 35, 1242-1244 (2010).
  21. K. O. Lee, K. S. Chiang, Z. Chen, "Temperature-insensitive fiber-Bragg-grating-based vibration sensor," Opt. Eng. 40, 2582-2585 (2001).
  22. A. Othonos, X. Lee, R. M. Measures, "Superimposed multiple Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 30, 1972-1974 (1994).
  23. H. Li, M. Li, Y. Sheng, J. E. Rothenberg, "Advances in the design and fabrication of high-channel-count fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2739-2750 (2007).
  24. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).
  25. H. Vallen, "AE testing fundamentals, equipment, applications," e-J. Nondestructive Testing 7, (2002).

2011

A. Canagasabey, A. Michie, J. Canning, J. Holdsworth, S. Fleming, H,-C. Wang, M. L. Aslund, "A comparison of delayed self-heterodyne interference measurement of laser linewidth using Mach–Zehnder and Michelson interferometers," Sensors 11, 9233-9241 (2011).

2010

A. I. Azmi, D. Sen, G. D. Peng, "Sensitivity enhancement in composite cavity fiber laser hydrophone," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1844-1850 (2010).

P. Orr, P. Niewczas, M. Stevenson, J. Canning, "Compound phase-shifted fiber Bragg structures as intrinsic magnetic field sensors," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2667-2673 (2010).

P. Orr, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, P. Niewczas, "Automatable fabrication of dispersion-tailored Bragg gratings for tunable narrowband delays," Electron. Lett. 46, 1283-1284 (2010).

E. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Y. Yu, X. Li, D. Huang, "Ultrahigh-Q microwave photonic filter with Vernier effect and wavelength conversion in a cascaded pair of active loops," Opt. Lett. 35, 1242-1244 (2010).

2009

L. Pou-Man, L. Kin-Tak, L. Hang-Yin, S. Zhongqing, T. Hwa-Yaw, "Acousto-ultrasonic sensing for delaminated GFRP composites using an embedded FBG sensor," Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 1049-1055 (2009).

H.-P. Loock, W. S. Hopkins, C. Morris-Blair, R. Resendes, J. Saari, N. R. Trefiak, "Recording the sound of musical instruments with FBGs: The photonic pickup," Appl. Opt. 48, 2735-2741 (2009).

2007

H. Li, M. Li, Y. Sheng, J. E. Rothenberg, "Advances in the design and fabrication of high-channel-count fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2739-2750 (2007).

G. B. Tait, "Vernier-effect optical interrogation technique for fiber Bragg grating sensors," Appl. Opt. 46, 6879-6884 (2007).

2005

R. Todt, T. Jacke, R. Meyer, J. Adler, R. Laroy, G. Morthier, M.-C. Amann, "Sampled grating tunable twin-guide laser diodes with over 40-nm electronic tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2514-2516 (2005).

2003

A. Bergonzo, J. Jacquet, D. De Gaudemaris, J. Landreau, A. Plais, A. Vuong, H. Sillard, T. Fillion, O. Durand, H. Krol, A. Accard, I. Riant, "Widely Vernier tunable external cavity laser including a sampled fiber Bragg grating with digital wavelength selection," IEEE Photonic. Technol. Lett. 15, 1144-1146 (2003).

2002

J. G. Liu, C. Schmidt-Hattenberger, G. Borm, "Dynamic strain measurement with a fibre Bragg grating sensor system," Measurement 32, 151-161 (2002).

N. Takahashi, W. Thongnum, S. Takahashi, "Fiber-Bragg-grating vibration sensor with temperature stability using wavelength-variable incoherent light source," Acoust. Sci. Technol. 23, 353-355 (2002).

H. Vallen, "AE testing fundamentals, equipment, applications," e-J. Nondestructive Testing 7, (2002).

2001

K. O. Lee, K. S. Chiang, Z. Chen, "Temperature-insensitive fiber-Bragg-grating-based vibration sensor," Opt. Eng. 40, 2582-2585 (2001).

2000

N. Takahashi, K. Yoshimura, S. Takahashi, "Detection of ultrasonic mechanical vibration of a solid using fiber Bragg grating," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3134-3138 (2000).

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, R. S. Tucker, "Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122-154 (2000).

1998

1997

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

1995

R. Zengerle, O. Leminger, "Phase-shifted Bragg-grating filters with improved transmission characteristics," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2354-2358 (1995).

1994

A. Othonos, X. Lee, R. M. Measures, "Superimposed multiple Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 30, 1972-1974 (1994).

1991

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, M. A. Davis, "Polarisation-insensitive fibre optic Michelson interferometer," Electron. Lett. 27, 518-520 (1991).

Acoust. Sci. Technol.

N. Takahashi, W. Thongnum, S. Takahashi, "Fiber-Bragg-grating vibration sensor with temperature stability using wavelength-variable incoherent light source," Acoust. Sci. Technol. 23, 353-355 (2002).

Appl. Opt.

G. B. Tait, "Vernier-effect optical interrogation technique for fiber Bragg grating sensors," Appl. Opt. 46, 6879-6884 (2007).

Appl. Opt.

e-J. Nondestructive Testing

H. Vallen, "AE testing fundamentals, equipment, applications," e-J. Nondestructive Testing 7, (2002).

Electron. Lett.

A. Othonos, X. Lee, R. M. Measures, "Superimposed multiple Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 30, 1972-1974 (1994).

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, M. A. Davis, "Polarisation-insensitive fibre optic Michelson interferometer," Electron. Lett. 27, 518-520 (1991).

P. Orr, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, P. Niewczas, "Automatable fabrication of dispersion-tailored Bragg gratings for tunable narrowband delays," Electron. Lett. 46, 1283-1284 (2010).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol.

P. Orr, P. Niewczas, M. Stevenson, J. Canning, "Compound phase-shifted fiber Bragg structures as intrinsic magnetic field sensors," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2667-2673 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. Todt, T. Jacke, R. Meyer, J. Adler, R. Laroy, G. Morthier, M.-C. Amann, "Sampled grating tunable twin-guide laser diodes with over 40-nm electronic tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2514-2516 (2005).

IEEE Photonic. Technol. Lett.

A. Bergonzo, J. Jacquet, D. De Gaudemaris, J. Landreau, A. Plais, A. Vuong, H. Sillard, T. Fillion, O. Durand, H. Krol, A. Accard, I. Riant, "Widely Vernier tunable external cavity laser including a sampled fiber Bragg grating with digital wavelength selection," IEEE Photonic. Technol. Lett. 15, 1144-1146 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol.

R. Zengerle, O. Leminger, "Phase-shifted Bragg-grating filters with improved transmission characteristics," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2354-2358 (1995).

J. Lightw. Technol.

A. I. Azmi, D. Sen, G. D. Peng, "Sensitivity enhancement in composite cavity fiber laser hydrophone," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1844-1850 (2010).

H. Li, M. Li, Y. Sheng, J. E. Rothenberg, "Advances in the design and fabrication of high-channel-count fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2739-2750 (2007).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

N. Takahashi, K. Yoshimura, S. Takahashi, "Detection of ultrasonic mechanical vibration of a solid using fiber Bragg grating," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3134-3138 (2000).

Measurement

J. G. Liu, C. Schmidt-Hattenberger, G. Borm, "Dynamic strain measurement with a fibre Bragg grating sensor system," Measurement 32, 151-161 (2002).

Opt. Fiber Technol.

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, R. S. Tucker, "Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122-154 (2000).

Opt. Eng.

K. O. Lee, K. S. Chiang, Z. Chen, "Temperature-insensitive fiber-Bragg-grating-based vibration sensor," Opt. Eng. 40, 2582-2585 (2001).

Opt. Laser Eng.

L. Pou-Man, L. Kin-Tak, L. Hang-Yin, S. Zhongqing, T. Hwa-Yaw, "Acousto-ultrasonic sensing for delaminated GFRP composites using an embedded FBG sensor," Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 1049-1055 (2009).

Opt. Lett.

Sensors

A. Canagasabey, A. Michie, J. Canning, J. Holdsworth, S. Fleming, H,-C. Wang, M. L. Aslund, "A comparison of delayed self-heterodyne interference measurement of laser linewidth using Mach–Zehnder and Michelson interferometers," Sensors 11, 9233-9241 (2011).

Other

J. M. Lopez-Higuera, Handbook of Optical Fibre Sensing Technology (Wiley, 2002) pp. 1-30.

D. J. Webb, J. Surowiec, M. Sweeney, D. A. Jackson, L. Gavrilov, J. W. Hand, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Miniature fibre optic ultrasonic probe," Proc. SPIE (1996) pp. 76-80.

M. Morin, M. Poulin, A. Mailloux, F. Trepanier, Y. Painchaud, "Full C-band slope-matched dispersion compensation based on a phase sampled Bragg grating," Proc. OFC (2004) pp. 740.

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