Abstract

We report on the design and prototyping of a robust high-speed interferometric multiplexer and interrogator for fiber Bragg grating sensors. The scheme is based on the combination of active WDM channel switching and passive, instantaneous interferometry, allowing the resolution of virgin interferometric interrogators to be retained at MHz multiplexing rates. In this article the system design and operation are described, and a prototype scheme is characterized for three sensors and a multiplexing rate of 4 kHz, demonstrating a noise floor of 10 nε/√Hz and no cross-sensitivity. It is proposed that the system will be applicable to demanding monitoring applications requiring high speed and high resolution measurements across the sensor array.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method," Opt. Lett. 14, 823-825 (1989).
  2. A. D. Kersey, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
  3. P. Niewczas, J. R. McDonald, "Advanced optical sensors for power and energy systems," IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag. 10, 18-28 (2007).
  4. A. Mendez, "Fiber Bragg grating sensors: A market overview," Proc. SPIE (2007).
  5. A. Ezbiri, S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, "High resolution instrumentation system for fibre-Bragg grating aerospace sensors," Opt. Commun. 150, 43-48 (1998).
  6. C. Boulet, D. J. Webb, M. Douay, P. Niay, "Simultaneous interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors using an acoustooptic tunable filter," IEEE Photin. Technol. Lett. 13, 1215-1217 (2001).
  7. A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, W. M. Morey, "Multiplexed Fiber Bragg grating strain-sensor system with a fiber Fabry-Perot wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 18, 1370-1372 (1993).
  8. A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, W. M. Morey, "High resolution fiber Bragg grating based strain sensor with interferometric wavelength detection," Electron. Lett. 28, 237 (1992).
  9. T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, "Fiber Bragg grating array sensor system using a bandpass wavelength division multiplexer and interferometric detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1522-1524 (1996).
  10. G. A. Johnson, M. D. Todd, B. L. Aulthouse, C. C. Chang, "Fiber Bragg grating interrogation and multiplexing with a 3$\,\times\,$3 coupler and a scanning filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1101-1105 (2000).
  11. M. D. Todd, G. A. Johnson, C. C. Chang, "Passive, light intensity-independent interferometric method for fibre Bragg grating interrogation," Electron. Lett. 35, 1970-1971 (1999).
  12. M. D. Todd, M. Seaver, F. Bucholtz, "Improved, operationally-passive interferometric demodulation method using 3$\,\times\,$3 coupler," Electron. Lett. 38, 784-786 (2002).
  13. F. Schleip, R. Hewith, G. Schiffner, "Phase sensitive investigations of 3$\,\times\,$3 singlemode fibre directional couplers," Electron. Lett. 29, 68-70 (1993).
  14. “EPI Photonics,” (2011.) www.epiphotonics.com.
  15. Y. J. Rao, "In-fibre Bragg grating sensors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355-375 (1997).
  16. P. Orr, P. Niewczas, "An optical fibre system design enabling simultaneous point measurement of magnetic field strength and temperature using low-birefringence FBGs," Sens. Actuators A 163, 68-74 (2010).
  17. B. Lee, "Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 57-79 (2003).

2010 (1)

P. Orr, P. Niewczas, "An optical fibre system design enabling simultaneous point measurement of magnetic field strength and temperature using low-birefringence FBGs," Sens. Actuators A 163, 68-74 (2010).

2007 (1)

P. Niewczas, J. R. McDonald, "Advanced optical sensors for power and energy systems," IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag. 10, 18-28 (2007).

2003 (1)

B. Lee, "Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 57-79 (2003).

2002 (1)

M. D. Todd, M. Seaver, F. Bucholtz, "Improved, operationally-passive interferometric demodulation method using 3$\,\times\,$3 coupler," Electron. Lett. 38, 784-786 (2002).

2001 (1)

C. Boulet, D. J. Webb, M. Douay, P. Niay, "Simultaneous interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors using an acoustooptic tunable filter," IEEE Photin. Technol. Lett. 13, 1215-1217 (2001).

2000 (1)

G. A. Johnson, M. D. Todd, B. L. Aulthouse, C. C. Chang, "Fiber Bragg grating interrogation and multiplexing with a 3$\,\times\,$3 coupler and a scanning filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1101-1105 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. D. Todd, G. A. Johnson, C. C. Chang, "Passive, light intensity-independent interferometric method for fibre Bragg grating interrogation," Electron. Lett. 35, 1970-1971 (1999).

1998 (1)

A. Ezbiri, S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, "High resolution instrumentation system for fibre-Bragg grating aerospace sensors," Opt. Commun. 150, 43-48 (1998).

1997 (2)

Y. J. Rao, "In-fibre Bragg grating sensors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355-375 (1997).

A. D. Kersey, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

1996 (1)

T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, "Fiber Bragg grating array sensor system using a bandpass wavelength division multiplexer and interferometric detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1522-1524 (1996).

1993 (2)

F. Schleip, R. Hewith, G. Schiffner, "Phase sensitive investigations of 3$\,\times\,$3 singlemode fibre directional couplers," Electron. Lett. 29, 68-70 (1993).

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, W. M. Morey, "Multiplexed Fiber Bragg grating strain-sensor system with a fiber Fabry-Perot wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 18, 1370-1372 (1993).

1992 (1)

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, W. M. Morey, "High resolution fiber Bragg grating based strain sensor with interferometric wavelength detection," Electron. Lett. 28, 237 (1992).

1989 (1)

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method," Opt. Lett. 14, 823-825 (1989).

Electron. Lett. (1)

F. Schleip, R. Hewith, G. Schiffner, "Phase sensitive investigations of 3$\,\times\,$3 singlemode fibre directional couplers," Electron. Lett. 29, 68-70 (1993).

Electron. Lett. (3)

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, W. M. Morey, "High resolution fiber Bragg grating based strain sensor with interferometric wavelength detection," Electron. Lett. 28, 237 (1992).

M. D. Todd, G. A. Johnson, C. C. Chang, "Passive, light intensity-independent interferometric method for fibre Bragg grating interrogation," Electron. Lett. 35, 1970-1971 (1999).

M. D. Todd, M. Seaver, F. Bucholtz, "Improved, operationally-passive interferometric demodulation method using 3$\,\times\,$3 coupler," Electron. Lett. 38, 784-786 (2002).

IEEE Photin. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Boulet, D. J. Webb, M. Douay, P. Niay, "Simultaneous interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors using an acoustooptic tunable filter," IEEE Photin. Technol. Lett. 13, 1215-1217 (2001).

IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag. (1)

P. Niewczas, J. R. McDonald, "Advanced optical sensors for power and energy systems," IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag. 10, 18-28 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, "Fiber Bragg grating array sensor system using a bandpass wavelength division multiplexer and interferometric detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1522-1524 (1996).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

G. A. Johnson, M. D. Todd, B. L. Aulthouse, C. C. Chang, "Fiber Bragg grating interrogation and multiplexing with a 3$\,\times\,$3 coupler and a scanning filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1101-1105 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. J. Rao, "In-fibre Bragg grating sensors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355-375 (1997).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Ezbiri, S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, "High resolution instrumentation system for fibre-Bragg grating aerospace sensors," Opt. Commun. 150, 43-48 (1998).

Opt. Lett. (1)

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method," Opt. Lett. 14, 823-825 (1989).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

B. Lee, "Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 57-79 (2003).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sens. Actuators A (1)

P. Orr, P. Niewczas, "An optical fibre system design enabling simultaneous point measurement of magnetic field strength and temperature using low-birefringence FBGs," Sens. Actuators A 163, 68-74 (2010).

Other (2)

“EPI Photonics,” (2011.) www.epiphotonics.com.

A. Mendez, "Fiber Bragg grating sensors: A market overview," Proc. SPIE (2007).

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