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processing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 62-69 (2010).

J. Yu, X. Zhou, "Ultra-high-capacity DWDM transmission system for 100 G
and beyond," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, S56-S64 (2010).

P. J. Winzer, "Beyond 100 G Ethernet," IEEE. Commun. Mag. 48, 26-30 (2010).

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, B. Goebel, "Capacity limits of optical fiber
networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662-701 (2010).

L. Erdős, J. Ramírez, B. Schlein, T. Tao, V. H. Vu, H.-T. Yau, "Bulk universality for Wigner hermitian matrices with
subexponential decay," Math. Res. Lett. 17, 667-674 (2010).

T. Tao, V. H. Vu, "From the Littlewood–Offord problem to the
circular law: Universality of the spectral distribution of random
matrices," Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 46, 337-396 (2009).

M. B. Shemirani, J. M. Kahn, "Higher-order modal dispersion in graded-index
multimode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5461-5468 (2009).

M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, J. M. Kahn, "Principal modes in graded-index multimode fiber in
presence of spatial- and polarization-mode
coupling," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1248-1261 (2009).

M. Nazarathy, A. Agmon, "Coherent transmission direct detection MIMO over
short-range optical interconnects and passive optical
networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2037-2045 (2008).

A. R. Shah, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Tarighat, A. H. Sayed, B. Jalali, "Coherent optical MIMO (COMIMO)," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2410-2419 (2005).

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server
architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

S. Fan, J. M. Kahn, "Principal modes in multi-mode
waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 135-137 (2005).

X. Shen, J. M. Kahn, M. A. Horowitz, "Compensation for multimode fiber dispersion by
adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 30, 2985-2987 (2005).

J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection
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G. J. Foschini, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, "Statistics of second-order PMD
depolarization," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1882-1886 (2001).

P. P. Mitra, J. B. Stark, "Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of
optical fibre communications," Nature 411, 1027-1030 (2001).

M. Karlsson, "Probability density functions of the differential
group delay in optical fiber communication
systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 324-331 (2001).

J. P. Gordon, H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in
optical fibers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97, 4541-4550 (2000).

H. R. Stuart, "Dispersive multiplexing in multimode optical
fiber," Science 289, 281-283 (2000).

G. J. Foschini, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, "Probability densities of second-order polarization
mode dispersion including polarization dependent chromatic fiber
dispersion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 293-295 (2000).

M. J. Li, D. A. Nolan, "Fiber spin-profile designs for producing fibers with
low polarization mode dispersion," Opt. Lett. 23, 1659-1661 (1998).

L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, M. C. Nowell, "An experimental and theoretical study of the offset
launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode
fiber links," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 324-331 (1998).

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fibers," Science 281, 962-967 (1998).

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T. Tao, V. H. Vu, "From the Littlewood–Offord problem to the
circular law: Universality of the spectral distribution of random
matrices," Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 46, 337-396 (2009).

C. D. Poole, R. E. Wagner, "Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion
in long single-mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 22, 1029-1030 (1986).

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server
architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, C. Laperle, "100 G and beyond with digital coherent signal
processing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 62-69 (2010).

J. Yu, X. Zhou, "Ultra-high-capacity DWDM transmission system for 100 G
and beyond," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, S56-S64 (2010).

J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection
techniques for DWDM systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).

C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Elliptical-core dual-mode fiber dispersion
compensator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 194-197 (1993).

G. J. Foschini, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, "Probability densities of second-order polarization
mode dispersion including polarization dependent chromatic fiber
dispersion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 293-295 (2000).

P. J. Winzer, "Beyond 100 G Ethernet," IEEE. Commun. Mag. 48, 26-30 (2010).

D. Voiculescu, "Limit laws for random matrices and free
products," Invent. Math. 104, 201-220 (1991).

P. Pepeljugoshi, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, A. Risteski, "Modeling and simulation of next-generation multimode
fiber links," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1242-1255 (2003).

G. J. Foschini, C. D. Poole, "Statistical theory of polarization dispersion in
single mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1439-1456 (1991).

M. Karlsson, "Probability density functions of the differential
group delay in optical fiber communication
systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 324-331 (2001).

M. B. Shemirani, J. M. Kahn, "Higher-order modal dispersion in graded-index
multimode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5461-5468 (2009).

L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, M. C. Nowell, "An experimental and theoretical study of the offset
launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode
fiber links," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 324-331 (1998).

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, B. Goebel, "Capacity limits of optical fiber
networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662-701 (2010).

A. R. Shah, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Tarighat, A. H. Sayed, B. Jalali, "Coherent optical MIMO (COMIMO)," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2410-2419 (2005).

M. Nazarathy, A. Agmon, "Coherent transmission direct detection MIMO over
short-range optical interconnects and passive optical
networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2037-2045 (2008).

G. J. Foschini, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, "Statistics of second-order PMD
depolarization," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1882-1886 (2001).

M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, J. M. Kahn, "Principal modes in graded-index multimode fiber in
presence of spatial- and polarization-mode
coupling," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1248-1261 (2009).

J. Ginibre, "Statistical ensembles of complex, quaternion, and real
matrices," J. Math. Phys. 6, 440-450 (1965).

K.-I. Kitayama, S. Sikai, N. Uchida, "Impulse response prediction based on experimental
mode-coupling coefficient in a 10-km long graded-index
fiber," J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 356-362 (1980).

L. Erdős, J. Ramírez, B. Schlein, T. Tao, V. H. Vu, H.-T. Yau, "Bulk universality for Wigner hermitian matrices with
subexponential decay," Math. Res. Lett. 17, 667-674 (2010).

P. P. Mitra, J. B. Stark, "Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of
optical fibre communications," Nature 411, 1027-1030 (2001).

B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, S. Y. Huang, H. J. Shaw, "Use of highly elliptical core fibers for two-mode
fiber devices," Opt. Lett. 12, 729-731 (1987).

M. J. Li, D. A. Nolan, "Fiber spin-profile designs for producing fibers with
low polarization mode dispersion," Opt. Lett. 23, 1659-1661 (1998).

S. Fan, J. M. Kahn, "Principal modes in multi-mode
waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 135-137 (2005).

X. Shen, J. M. Kahn, M. A. Horowitz, "Compensation for multimode fiber dispersion by
adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 30, 2985-2987 (2005).

J. P. Gordon, H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in
optical fibers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97, 4541-4550 (2000).

A. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, "Graded index waveguides—A
review," Prog. Opt. 18, 1-126 (1980).

H. R. Stuart, "Dispersive multiplexing in multimode optical
fiber," Science 289, 281-283 (2000).

A. F. Garito, J. Wang, R. Gao, "Effects of random perturbations in plastic optical
fibers," Science 281, 962-967 (1998).

D. Gottlieb, C.-W. Shu, "On the Gibbs phenomenon and its
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