Abstract

We propose a rate-adaptive transmission scheme using variable-rate forward error correction (FEC) codes with a fixed signal constellation and a fixed symbol rate, quantifying how achievable bit rates vary with distance in a long-haul fiber system. The FEC scheme uses serially concatenated Reed–Solomon (RS) codes with hard-decision decoding, using shortening and puncturing to vary the code rate. An inner repetition code with soft combining provides further rate variation. While suboptimal, repetition coding allows operation at very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with minimal increase in complexity. A rate adaptation algorithm uses the SNR or the FEC decoder input bit-error ratio (BER) estimated by a receiver to determine the combination of RS-RS and repetition codes that maximizes the information bit rate while satisfying a target FEC decoder output BER and providing a specified SNR margin. This FEC scheme is combined here with single-carrier polarization-multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying (PM-QPSK) and digital coherent detection, achieving 100-Gbit/s peak information bit rate in a nominal 50-GHz channel bandwidth. We simulate variable-rate single-channel transmission through a long-haul system incorporating numerous optical switches, evaluating the impact of fiber nonlinearity and bandwidth narrowing. With zero SNR margin, achievable information bit rates vary from 100 Gbit/s at 2000 km, to about 60 Gbit/s at 3000 km, to about 35 Gbit/s at 4000 km. Compared to an ideal coding scheme achieving information-theoretic limits on an AWGN channel, the proposed coding scheme exhibits a performance gap ranging from about 5.9 dB at 2000 km to about 7.5 dB at 5000 km. Much of the increase in the gap arises from the inefficiency of the repetition coding used beyond 3280 km. Rate-adaptive transmission can extend reach when regeneration sites are not available, helping networks adapt to changing traffic demands. It is likely to become more important with the continued evolution toward optically switched mesh networks, which make signal quality more variable.

© 2010 IEEE

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  2. IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks—Part 16: Air Interface for Broadband Wireless Access Systems IEEE 802.16-2009 (2009).
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2010 (1)

M. Arabaci, I. B. Djordjevic, R. Saunders, R. M. Marcoccia, "Polarization-multiplexed rate-adaptive nonbinary-quasi-cyclic-LDPC- coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection for optical transport networks," Opt. Exp. 18, 1820-1632 (2010).

2007 (1)

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Digital equalization of chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2033-2043 (2007).

2006 (1)

K.-P. Ho, H.-C. Wang, "Effect of dispersion on nonlinear phase noise," Optics Lett. 31, 2109-2111 (2006).

2005 (3)

I. B. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, "Nonbinary LDPC codes for optical communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2224-2226 (2005).

K.-P. Ho, H.-C. Wang, "Comparison of nonlinear phase noise and intrachannel four-wave-mixing for RZ-DPSK signals in dispersive transmission systems," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1426-1428 (2005).

B. Xu, "Concatenated codes-based bit-rate adaptation for blocking probability reduction in WDM networks," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1983-1985 (2005).

2004 (1)

T. Mizuochi, Y. Miyata, T. Kobayashi, K. Ouchi, K. Kuno, K. Kubo, K. Shimizu, H. Tagami, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Akita, K. Motoshima, "Forward error correction based on block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision for 10 Gb/s optical communication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 376-386 (2004).

2003 (1)

O. V. Sinkin, R. Holzlöhner, J. Zweck, C. R. Menyuk, "Optimization of the split-step Fourier method in modeling optical-fiber communications systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 61-68 (2003).

2002 (1)

E. Inaty, H. M. H. Shalaby, P. Fortier, L. A. Rusch, "Multirate optical fast frequency hopping CDMA system using power control," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 166-177 (2002).

1997 (1)

D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk, P. K. A. Wai, "Application of the Manakov-PMD equation to studies of signal propagation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1735-1746 (1997).

1990 (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Mizuochi, Y. Miyata, T. Kobayashi, K. Ouchi, K. Kuno, K. Kubo, K. Shimizu, H. Tagami, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Akita, K. Motoshima, "Forward error correction based on block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision for 10 Gb/s optical communication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 376-386 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

I. B. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, "Nonbinary LDPC codes for optical communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2224-2226 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

E. Inaty, H. M. H. Shalaby, P. Fortier, L. A. Rusch, "Multirate optical fast frequency hopping CDMA system using power control," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 166-177 (2002).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Digital equalization of chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2033-2043 (2007).

O. V. Sinkin, R. Holzlöhner, J. Zweck, C. R. Menyuk, "Optimization of the split-step Fourier method in modeling optical-fiber communications systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 61-68 (2003).

D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk, P. K. A. Wai, "Application of the Manakov-PMD equation to studies of signal propagation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1735-1746 (1997).

Opt. Exp. (1)

M. Arabaci, I. B. Djordjevic, R. Saunders, R. M. Marcoccia, "Polarization-multiplexed rate-adaptive nonbinary-quasi-cyclic-LDPC- coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection for optical transport networks," Opt. Exp. 18, 1820-1632 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optics Lett. (1)

K.-P. Ho, H.-C. Wang, "Effect of dispersion on nonlinear phase noise," Optics Lett. 31, 2109-2111 (2006).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K.-P. Ho, H.-C. Wang, "Comparison of nonlinear phase noise and intrachannel four-wave-mixing for RZ-DPSK signals in dispersive transmission systems," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1426-1428 (2005).

B. Xu, "Concatenated codes-based bit-rate adaptation for blocking probability reduction in WDM networks," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1983-1985 (2005).

Other (15)

G. D. Forney, Concatenated Codes (MIT Press, 1966).

Forward Error Correction for High Bit-Rate DWDM Submarine Systems ITU-T G.975.1 (2004).

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) Transceivers ITU-T G.992.1 (1999).

IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks—Part 16: Air Interface for Broadband Wireless Access Systems IEEE 802.16-2009 (2009).

3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; Physical Layer Procedures (FDD) (Release 8) 3GPP TS 25.214 V8.7.0 (2009).

J. McDonough, "Moving standards to 100 GbE and beyond," IEEE Applications and Practice (2007).

Interfaces for Optical Transport Network ITU-T G.709 (2009).

S. Lin, D. J. Costello, Jr.Error Control Coding (Prentice Hall, 2004).

S. B. Wicker, Error Control Systems for Digital Communication and Storage (Prentice Hall, 1995).

Forward Error Correction for Submarine Systems ITU-T G.975 (1996).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2007).

40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s Ethernet Task Force IEEE P802.3ba http://www.ieee802.org/3/ba/public/index.html.

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, S. L. Woodward, Optical Fiber Telecommunications V B (Academic Press, 2008).

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 1994).

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