Abstract

We demonstrate low-threshold single-mode supercontinuum (SC) generation by using a tellurite nanowire with long suspended struts under the pump of a picosecond fiber laser. The nanowire was fabricated by pumping an inflation pressure of nitrogen gas into the holes in the processes of preparing cane and drawing nanowire. At the pump wavelength of 1064 nm the nanowire has an optimized nonlinear coefficient. Due to the long radial struts the nanowire can propagate light up to the wavelength as long as 1800 nm with an insignificant confinement loss. Additionally, the tube-shaped glass cladding of the suspended nanowire shifts the single-mode cutoff wavelength to 810 nm. It is shorter than the cutoff wavelength, 1070 nm, of a naked nanowire with the same diameter. This makes it possible to obtain an SC spectrum, which is single mode for all wavelengths of the spectrum. Because of the high nonlinearity, a single-mode SC covering a wavelength range of 900–1600 nm was obtained under the pump pulse with the peak power as low as 24 W. It is shown that the suspended core nanowire with long struts can provide an optimized nonlinearity together with single-mode propagation, which leads to interesting applications in compact nonlinear devices.

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  18. M. Foster, K. Moll, A. Gaeta, "Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions," Opt. Exp. 12, 2880-2887 (2004).
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  24. G. Brambilla, F. Xu, X. Feng, "Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterization," Electron. Lett. 42, 517-518 (2006).
  25. X. Feng, A. K. Mairaj, D. W. Hewak, T. M. Monro, "Nonsilica glasses for holey fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2046-2054 (2005).
  26. C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, "Chalcogenide core photonic crystal fibers for zero chromatic dispersion in the C-Band," Pro. OFC San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OTuC4.
  27. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires," Opt. Exp. 16, 1300-1320 (2008).
  28. P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Loss in solid-core photonic crystal fibers due to interface roughness scattering," Opt. Exp. 13, 7779-7793 (2005).
  29. K. Huang, S. Yang, L. Tong, "Modeling of evanescent coupling between two parallel optical nanowires," Appl. Opt. 46, 1429-1434 (2007).
  30. G. S. Qin, R. Jose, Y. Ohishi, "Stimulated Raman scattering in tellurite glasses as a potential system for slow light generation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093109-1-093109-5 (2007).
  31. M. J. Potasek, G. P. Agrawal, "Self-amplitude-modulation of optical pulses in nonlinear dispersive fibers," Phys. Rev. A 36, 3862-3867 (1987).
  32. F. Michael F, F. Peter, B. Ole, "The role of the second zero-dispersion wavelength in generation of supercontinua and bright-bright soliton-pairs across the zero-dispersion wavelength," Opt. Exp. 13, 6181-6192 (2005).
  33. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).

2009 (5)

M. Liao, X. Yan, G. Qin, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, "A highly non-linear tellurite microstructure fiber with multi-ring holes for supercontinuum generation," Opt. Exp. 17, 15481-15490 (2009).

M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, M. Matsumoto, T. Misumi, "Fabrication and characterization of a chalcogenide-tellurite composite microstructure fiber with high nonlinearity," Opt. Exp. 17, 21608-21614 (2009).

M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, G. Qin, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, "Tellurite microstructure fibers with small hexagonal core for supercontinuum generation," Opt. Exp. 17, 12174-12182 (2009).

R. M. Osgood, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, "Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: Physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires," Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 162-235 (2009).

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, D. J. Richardson, "Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: Fabrication and applications," Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 107-161 (2009).

2008 (7)

D.-I. Yeom, E. C. Mägi, M. R. E. Lamont, M. A. F. Roelens, L. Fu, B. J. Eggleton, "Low-threshold supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear chalcogenide nanowires," Opt. Lett. 33, 660-662 (2008).

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires," Opt. Exp. 16, 1300-1320 (2008).

M. R. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Choi, S. Madden, B. J. Eggleton, "Supercontinuum generation in dispersion engineered highly nonlinear $(\gamma =10/{\rm W}/{\rm m})$ As$_{2}$S$_{3}$ chalcogenide planar waveguide," Opt. Exp. 16, 14938-14944 (2008).

X. Xing, Y. Wang, B. Li, "Nanofiber drawing and nanodevice assembly in poly(trimethylene terephthalate)," Opt. Exp. 16, 10815-10822 (2008).

X. Feng, W. H. Loh, J. C. Flanagan, A. Camerlingo, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, K. E. Frampton, N. M. White, J. H. V. Price, H. N. Rutt, D. J. Richardson, "Single-mode tellurite glass holey fiber with extremely large mode area for infrared nonlinear applications," Opt. Exp. 16, 13651-13656 (2008).

P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, F. G. Omenetto, "Over 4000 nm bandwidth of midIR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs," Opt. Exp. 16, 7161-7168 (2008).

Y. S. Kivshar, "Nonlinear optics: The next decade," Opt. Exp. 16, 22126-22128 (2008).

2007 (3)

K. Huang, S. Yang, L. Tong, "Modeling of evanescent coupling between two parallel optical nanowires," Appl. Opt. 46, 1429-1434 (2007).

G. S. Qin, R. Jose, Y. Ohishi, "Stimulated Raman scattering in tellurite glasses as a potential system for slow light generation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093109-1-093109-5 (2007).

E. C. Mägi, L. B. Fu, H. C. Nguyen, M. R. Lamont, D. I. Yeom, B. J. Eggleton, "Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in sub-wavelength diameter As$_{2}$Se$_{3}$ chalcogenide fiber tapers," Opt. Exp. 15, 10324-10329 (2007).

2006 (2)

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, X. Feng, "Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterization," Electron. Lett. 42, 517-518 (2006).

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).

2005 (4)

F. Michael F, F. Peter, B. Ole, "The role of the second zero-dispersion wavelength in generation of supercontinua and bright-bright soliton-pairs across the zero-dispersion wavelength," Opt. Exp. 13, 6181-6192 (2005).

X. Feng, A. K. Mairaj, D. W. Hewak, T. M. Monro, "Nonsilica glasses for holey fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2046-2054 (2005).

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Loss in solid-core photonic crystal fibers due to interface roughness scattering," Opt. Exp. 13, 7779-7793 (2005).

L. Tong, J. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. He, X. Chen, L. Liu, E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices," Nano Lett. 5, 259-262 (2005).

2004 (2)

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, P. Yang, "Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration," Science 305, 1269-1273 (2004).

M. Foster, K. Moll, A. Gaeta, "Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions," Opt. Exp. 12, 2880-2887 (2004).

2003 (2)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).

V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Tellurite photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 11, 2641-2645 (2003).

2002 (1)

D. Appell, "Wired for success," Nature 419, 553-555 (2002).

2001 (1)

L. Provino, J. M. Dudley, H. Maillotte, N. Grossard, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, "Compact broadband continuum source based on microchip laser pumped microstructured fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 558-560 (2001).

2000 (2)

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T. Morioka, K. I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5 GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett. 36, 2089-2090 (2000).

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).

1996 (1)

M. Nisoli, S. D. Silvestri, O. Svelto, "Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793-2795 (1996).

1987 (1)

M. J. Potasek, G. P. Agrawal, "Self-amplitude-modulation of optical pulses in nonlinear dispersive fibers," Phys. Rev. A 36, 3862-3867 (1987).

1986 (1)

A. F. Fercher, E. Roth, "Ophthalmic laser interferometry," Proc. SPIE 658, 48-51 (1986).

Adv. Opt. Photon. (2)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Nisoli, S. D. Silvestri, O. Svelto, "Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793-2795 (1996).

Electron. Lett. (3)

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T. Morioka, K. I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5 GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett. 36, 2089-2090 (2000).

L. Provino, J. M. Dudley, H. Maillotte, N. Grossard, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, "Compact broadband continuum source based on microchip laser pumped microstructured fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 558-560 (2001).

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, X. Feng, "Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterization," Electron. Lett. 42, 517-518 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. S. Qin, R. Jose, Y. Ohishi, "Stimulated Raman scattering in tellurite glasses as a potential system for slow light generation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093109-1-093109-5 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

X. Feng, A. K. Mairaj, D. W. Hewak, T. M. Monro, "Nonsilica glasses for holey fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2046-2054 (2005).

Nano Lett. (1)

L. Tong, J. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. He, X. Chen, L. Liu, E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices," Nano Lett. 5, 259-262 (2005).

Nature (2)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).

D. Appell, "Wired for success," Nature 419, 553-555 (2002).

Opt. Exp. (14)

X. Xing, Y. Wang, B. Li, "Nanofiber drawing and nanodevice assembly in poly(trimethylene terephthalate)," Opt. Exp. 16, 10815-10822 (2008).

Y. S. Kivshar, "Nonlinear optics: The next decade," Opt. Exp. 16, 22126-22128 (2008).

M. Liao, X. Yan, G. Qin, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, "A highly non-linear tellurite microstructure fiber with multi-ring holes for supercontinuum generation," Opt. Exp. 17, 15481-15490 (2009).

M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, M. Matsumoto, T. Misumi, "Fabrication and characterization of a chalcogenide-tellurite composite microstructure fiber with high nonlinearity," Opt. Exp. 17, 21608-21614 (2009).

P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, F. G. Omenetto, "Over 4000 nm bandwidth of midIR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs," Opt. Exp. 16, 7161-7168 (2008).

V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Tellurite photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 11, 2641-2645 (2003).

M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, G. Qin, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, "Tellurite microstructure fibers with small hexagonal core for supercontinuum generation," Opt. Exp. 17, 12174-12182 (2009).

X. Feng, W. H. Loh, J. C. Flanagan, A. Camerlingo, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, K. E. Frampton, N. M. White, J. H. V. Price, H. N. Rutt, D. J. Richardson, "Single-mode tellurite glass holey fiber with extremely large mode area for infrared nonlinear applications," Opt. Exp. 16, 13651-13656 (2008).

E. C. Mägi, L. B. Fu, H. C. Nguyen, M. R. Lamont, D. I. Yeom, B. J. Eggleton, "Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in sub-wavelength diameter As$_{2}$Se$_{3}$ chalcogenide fiber tapers," Opt. Exp. 15, 10324-10329 (2007).

M. R. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Choi, S. Madden, B. J. Eggleton, "Supercontinuum generation in dispersion engineered highly nonlinear $(\gamma =10/{\rm W}/{\rm m})$ As$_{2}$S$_{3}$ chalcogenide planar waveguide," Opt. Exp. 16, 14938-14944 (2008).

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires," Opt. Exp. 16, 1300-1320 (2008).

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Loss in solid-core photonic crystal fibers due to interface roughness scattering," Opt. Exp. 13, 7779-7793 (2005).

F. Michael F, F. Peter, B. Ole, "The role of the second zero-dispersion wavelength in generation of supercontinua and bright-bright soliton-pairs across the zero-dispersion wavelength," Opt. Exp. 13, 6181-6192 (2005).

M. Foster, K. Moll, A. Gaeta, "Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions," Opt. Exp. 12, 2880-2887 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. J. Potasek, G. P. Agrawal, "Self-amplitude-modulation of optical pulses in nonlinear dispersive fibers," Phys. Rev. A 36, 3862-3867 (1987).

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. F. Fercher, E. Roth, "Ophthalmic laser interferometry," Proc. SPIE 658, 48-51 (1986).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).

Science (2)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, P. Yang, "Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration," Science 305, 1269-1273 (2004).

Other (1)

C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, "Chalcogenide core photonic crystal fibers for zero chromatic dispersion in the C-Band," Pro. OFC San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OTuC4.

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