Abstract

We present an equivalent circuit cut-off frequency analysis of a Coupled-Cavity Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser with one cavity used as a fast electro-optic modulator with lumped electrodes. We find that the mesa capacitance and the polyimide capacitance and series resistance are the most influencing parameters. In order to enhance the -3 dB bandwidth the design steps should be: reduction of the contact pad area and modulator mesa radius together with increasing the modulator cavity length, as well as implementing a pnp structure. Based on the model, we suggest a realistic structure that is theoretically able to achieve about 100 GHz modulation speed.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. N. Savage, "Linking with light [high-speed optical interconnects]," IEEE Spectrum 39, 32-36 (2002).
  2. E. Mohammed, "Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications," Intel Technol. J 8, 115-127 (2004).
  3. L. Schares, "Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).
  4. Y. Chang, C. Wang, L. Coldren, "High-efficiency, high-speed VCSELs with 35 Gbit/s error-free operation," Electron. Lett. 43, 1022-1023 (2007).
  5. P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, B. Kögel, Å. Haglund, A. Larsson, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, D. Bimberg, A. Joel, "40 Gbit/s error-free operation of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSEL," Electron. Lett. 46, 1014-1015 (2010).
  6. R. Stanley, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, C. Weisbuch, "Coupled semiconductor microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2093-2095 (1994).
  7. P. Pellandini, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, C. Weisbuch, "Dual-wavelength laser emission from a coupled semiconductor microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 864-866 (1997).
  8. P. Michler, M. Hilpert, G. Reiner, "Dynamics of dual-wavelength emission from a coupled semiconductor microcavity laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2073 (1997).
  9. J. Carlin, R. Stanley, P. Pellandini, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, "The dual wavelength Bi-vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 908 (1999).
  10. M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, J. Carlin, R. Stanley, M. Ilegems, "Continuous-wave dual-wavelength lasing in a two-section vertical-cavity laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1316-1318 (2000).
  11. C. Chen, K. Johnson, M. Hibbs-Brenner, K. Choquette, "Push-pull modulation of a composite-resonator vertical-cavity laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 438-446 (2010).
  12. J. Hudgings, R. Stone, S. Lim, K. Lau, C. Chang-Hasnain, "Comparative study of the analog performance of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under gain and cavity loss modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2092 (2000).
  13. D. Grasso, D. Serkland, G. Peake, K. Geib, K. Choquette, "Direct modulation characteristics of composite resonator vertical-cavity lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1248-1254 (2006).
  14. J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, E. Mohammed, I. Young, S. Oktyabrsky, "Modulation properties of VCSEL with intracavity modulator," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 64840A.
  15. A. Paraskevopoulos, "Ultra-High-Bandwidth (${>}35$ GHz) Electrooptically-Modulated VCSEL," Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2006).
  16. V. Shchukin, "Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: Modeling and experimental results," Proc. SPIE (2008) pp. 68890H.
  17. K. Panajotov, M. Zujewski, H. Thienpont, "Coupled-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Spectral and polarization threshold characteristics and electrooptic switching," Opt. Express 18, 27525-27533 (2010).
  18. M. Yakimov, J. van Eisden, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, S. R. Oktyabrsky, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, "Concept of feedback-free high-frequency loss modulation in detuned duo-cavity vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, (2010).
  19. Y. Chang, L. Coldren, "Efficient, high-data-rate, tapered oxide-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 704-715 (2009).
  20. A. Al-Omari, K. Lear, "Polyimide-planarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with 17.0-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 969-971 (2004).
  21. (2011) http://www.ioffe.ru/SVA/NSM/Semicond/AlGaAs/bandstr.html [Online]. Available:.
  22. A. N. Al-Omari, I. K. Al-Kofahi, K. L. Lear, "Fabrication, performance and parasitic parameter extraction of 850 nm high-speed vertical-cavity lasers," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, (2009).
  23. N. Suzuki, H. Hatakeyama, K. Fukatsu, T. Anan, K. Yashiki, M. Tsuji, "25 Gbit/s operation of InGaAs-based VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 42, 975-976 (2006).
  24. Y. Chang, C. Wang, L. Coldren, "High-speed tapered-oxide-apertured 980 nm VCSELs supporting data rates up to 30 Gb/s," Proc. 20th Annu. Meeting LEOS (2007) pp. 564-565.
  25. P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, H. Sunnerud, A. Larsson, "Large aperture 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 44, 907-908 (2008).
  26. A. Dutta, H. Kosaka, K. Kurihara, Y. Sugimasa, K. Kasahara, "High-speed VCSEL of modulation bandwidth over 7.0 GHz and its application to 100 m PCF datalink," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 870-875 (1998).
  27. A. Al-Omari, K. Lear, "Dielectric characteristics of spin-coated dielectric films using on-wafer parallel-plate capacitors at microwave frequencies," IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 12, 1151-1161 (2005).
  28. A. Al-Omari, G. Carey, S. Hallstein, J. Watson, G. Dang, K. Lear, "Low thermal resistance high-speed top-emitting 980-nm VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1225-1227 (2006).
  29. A. Al-Omari, G. Carey, S. Hallstein, J. Watson, G. Dang, K. Lear, "Low thermal resistance, low current density, high-speed 980 and 850 nm VCSELs," IEEE 20th Int. Semicond. Laser Conf. Dig. (2006) pp. 127-128.
  30. Y. Chang, C. Wang, L. Johansson, L. Coldren, "High-efficiency, high-speed VCSELs with deep oxidation layers," Electron. Lett. 42, 1281-1282 (2006).
  31. C. Chang, L. Chrostowski, C. Chang-Hasnain, "Parasitics and design considerations on oxide-implant VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1274-1276 (2001).
  32. W. Nakwaski, M. Osinski, J. Cheng, "Spreading resistance in proton-implanted vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3101-3103 (1992).
  33. K. Leara, A. Al-Omarib, "Progress and issues for high speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 64840J-1.
  34. A. Fischer, K. Choquette, W. Chow, H. Hou, K. Geib, "Coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3020-3022 (1999).

2010 (4)

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, B. Kögel, Å. Haglund, A. Larsson, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, D. Bimberg, A. Joel, "40 Gbit/s error-free operation of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSEL," Electron. Lett. 46, 1014-1015 (2010).

C. Chen, K. Johnson, M. Hibbs-Brenner, K. Choquette, "Push-pull modulation of a composite-resonator vertical-cavity laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 438-446 (2010).

M. Yakimov, J. van Eisden, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, S. R. Oktyabrsky, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, "Concept of feedback-free high-frequency loss modulation in detuned duo-cavity vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, (2010).

K. Panajotov, M. Zujewski, H. Thienpont, "Coupled-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Spectral and polarization threshold characteristics and electrooptic switching," Opt. Express 18, 27525-27533 (2010).

2009 (2)

Y. Chang, L. Coldren, "Efficient, high-data-rate, tapered oxide-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 704-715 (2009).

A. N. Al-Omari, I. K. Al-Kofahi, K. L. Lear, "Fabrication, performance and parasitic parameter extraction of 850 nm high-speed vertical-cavity lasers," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, (2009).

2008 (1)

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, H. Sunnerud, A. Larsson, "Large aperture 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 44, 907-908 (2008).

2007 (1)

Y. Chang, C. Wang, L. Coldren, "High-efficiency, high-speed VCSELs with 35 Gbit/s error-free operation," Electron. Lett. 43, 1022-1023 (2007).

2006 (5)

L. Schares, "Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).

N. Suzuki, H. Hatakeyama, K. Fukatsu, T. Anan, K. Yashiki, M. Tsuji, "25 Gbit/s operation of InGaAs-based VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 42, 975-976 (2006).

D. Grasso, D. Serkland, G. Peake, K. Geib, K. Choquette, "Direct modulation characteristics of composite resonator vertical-cavity lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1248-1254 (2006).

A. Al-Omari, G. Carey, S. Hallstein, J. Watson, G. Dang, K. Lear, "Low thermal resistance high-speed top-emitting 980-nm VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1225-1227 (2006).

Y. Chang, C. Wang, L. Johansson, L. Coldren, "High-efficiency, high-speed VCSELs with deep oxidation layers," Electron. Lett. 42, 1281-1282 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. Al-Omari, K. Lear, "Dielectric characteristics of spin-coated dielectric films using on-wafer parallel-plate capacitors at microwave frequencies," IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 12, 1151-1161 (2005).

2004 (2)

A. Al-Omari, K. Lear, "Polyimide-planarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with 17.0-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 969-971 (2004).

E. Mohammed, "Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications," Intel Technol. J 8, 115-127 (2004).

2002 (1)

N. Savage, "Linking with light [high-speed optical interconnects]," IEEE Spectrum 39, 32-36 (2002).

2001 (1)

C. Chang, L. Chrostowski, C. Chang-Hasnain, "Parasitics and design considerations on oxide-implant VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1274-1276 (2001).

2000 (2)

J. Hudgings, R. Stone, S. Lim, K. Lau, C. Chang-Hasnain, "Comparative study of the analog performance of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under gain and cavity loss modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2092 (2000).

M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, J. Carlin, R. Stanley, M. Ilegems, "Continuous-wave dual-wavelength lasing in a two-section vertical-cavity laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1316-1318 (2000).

1999 (2)

J. Carlin, R. Stanley, P. Pellandini, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, "The dual wavelength Bi-vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 908 (1999).

A. Fischer, K. Choquette, W. Chow, H. Hou, K. Geib, "Coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3020-3022 (1999).

1998 (1)

A. Dutta, H. Kosaka, K. Kurihara, Y. Sugimasa, K. Kasahara, "High-speed VCSEL of modulation bandwidth over 7.0 GHz and its application to 100 m PCF datalink," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 870-875 (1998).

1997 (2)

P. Pellandini, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, C. Weisbuch, "Dual-wavelength laser emission from a coupled semiconductor microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 864-866 (1997).

P. Michler, M. Hilpert, G. Reiner, "Dynamics of dual-wavelength emission from a coupled semiconductor microcavity laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2073 (1997).

1994 (1)

R. Stanley, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, C. Weisbuch, "Coupled semiconductor microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2093-2095 (1994).

1992 (1)

W. Nakwaski, M. Osinski, J. Cheng, "Spreading resistance in proton-implanted vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3101-3103 (1992).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Pellandini, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, C. Weisbuch, "Dual-wavelength laser emission from a coupled semiconductor microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 864-866 (1997).

J. Hudgings, R. Stone, S. Lim, K. Lau, C. Chang-Hasnain, "Comparative study of the analog performance of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under gain and cavity loss modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2092 (2000).

W. Nakwaski, M. Osinski, J. Cheng, "Spreading resistance in proton-implanted vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3101-3103 (1992).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Carlin, R. Stanley, P. Pellandini, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, "The dual wavelength Bi-vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 908 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Michler, M. Hilpert, G. Reiner, "Dynamics of dual-wavelength emission from a coupled semiconductor microcavity laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2073 (1997).

R. Stanley, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, C. Weisbuch, "Coupled semiconductor microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2093-2095 (1994).

A. Fischer, K. Choquette, W. Chow, H. Hou, K. Geib, "Coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3020-3022 (1999).

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, H. Sunnerud, A. Larsson, "Large aperture 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 44, 907-908 (2008).

Electron. Lett. (4)

N. Suzuki, H. Hatakeyama, K. Fukatsu, T. Anan, K. Yashiki, M. Tsuji, "25 Gbit/s operation of InGaAs-based VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 42, 975-976 (2006).

Y. Chang, C. Wang, L. Johansson, L. Coldren, "High-efficiency, high-speed VCSELs with deep oxidation layers," Electron. Lett. 42, 1281-1282 (2006).

Y. Chang, C. Wang, L. Coldren, "High-efficiency, high-speed VCSELs with 35 Gbit/s error-free operation," Electron. Lett. 43, 1022-1023 (2007).

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, B. Kögel, Å. Haglund, A. Larsson, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, D. Bimberg, A. Joel, "40 Gbit/s error-free operation of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSEL," Electron. Lett. 46, 1014-1015 (2010).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Schares, "Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. Chen, K. Johnson, M. Hibbs-Brenner, K. Choquette, "Push-pull modulation of a composite-resonator vertical-cavity laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 438-446 (2010).

D. Grasso, D. Serkland, G. Peake, K. Geib, K. Choquette, "Direct modulation characteristics of composite resonator vertical-cavity lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1248-1254 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Chang, L. Coldren, "Efficient, high-data-rate, tapered oxide-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 704-715 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Al-Omari, K. Lear, "Polyimide-planarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with 17.0-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 969-971 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. Chang, L. Chrostowski, C. Chang-Hasnain, "Parasitics and design considerations on oxide-implant VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1274-1276 (2001).

M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, J. Carlin, R. Stanley, M. Ilegems, "Continuous-wave dual-wavelength lasing in a two-section vertical-cavity laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1316-1318 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Al-Omari, G. Carey, S. Hallstein, J. Watson, G. Dang, K. Lear, "Low thermal resistance high-speed top-emitting 980-nm VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1225-1227 (2006).

IEEE Spectrum (1)

N. Savage, "Linking with light [high-speed optical interconnects]," IEEE Spectrum 39, 32-36 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. (1)

A. Al-Omari, K. Lear, "Dielectric characteristics of spin-coated dielectric films using on-wafer parallel-plate capacitors at microwave frequencies," IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 12, 1151-1161 (2005).

Intel Technol. J (1)

E. Mohammed, "Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications," Intel Technol. J 8, 115-127 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Dutta, H. Kosaka, K. Kurihara, Y. Sugimasa, K. Kasahara, "High-speed VCSEL of modulation bandwidth over 7.0 GHz and its application to 100 m PCF datalink," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 870-875 (1998).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Yakimov, J. van Eisden, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, S. R. Oktyabrsky, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, "Concept of feedback-free high-frequency loss modulation in detuned duo-cavity vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, (2010).

Opt. Express (1)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. N. Al-Omari, I. K. Al-Kofahi, K. L. Lear, "Fabrication, performance and parasitic parameter extraction of 850 nm high-speed vertical-cavity lasers," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, (2009).

Other (7)

(2011) http://www.ioffe.ru/SVA/NSM/Semicond/AlGaAs/bandstr.html [Online]. Available:.

Y. Chang, C. Wang, L. Coldren, "High-speed tapered-oxide-apertured 980 nm VCSELs supporting data rates up to 30 Gb/s," Proc. 20th Annu. Meeting LEOS (2007) pp. 564-565.

K. Leara, A. Al-Omarib, "Progress and issues for high speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 64840J-1.

A. Al-Omari, G. Carey, S. Hallstein, J. Watson, G. Dang, K. Lear, "Low thermal resistance, low current density, high-speed 980 and 850 nm VCSELs," IEEE 20th Int. Semicond. Laser Conf. Dig. (2006) pp. 127-128.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, E. Mohammed, I. Young, S. Oktyabrsky, "Modulation properties of VCSEL with intracavity modulator," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 64840A.

A. Paraskevopoulos, "Ultra-High-Bandwidth (${>}35$ GHz) Electrooptically-Modulated VCSEL," Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2006).

V. Shchukin, "Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: Modeling and experimental results," Proc. SPIE (2008) pp. 68890H.

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