Abstract

An asymmetrical twin-core fiber based Michelson interferometer is reported as a refractive index sensor. One core of the twin-core fiber locates at the fiber center and the other core is 26 μm away from the central core. Part of the cladding of the twin-core fiber over a small length is removed by chemical etching to make the effective refractive index of the fundamental mode of the side core is sensitive to the ambient refractive index. Therefore, the interference spectrum between the central core and the side core shifts with the variation of the ambient refractive index. The sensitivity of such a Michelson interferometer is ~270 nm/RIU in the range of 1.34–1.38.

© 2011 IEEE

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2011

2010

Y. Wang, M. Yang, D. N. Wang, S. Liu, P. Lu, "Fiber in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining for refractive index measurement with high sensitivity," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 27, 370-374 (2010).

O. Frazao, S. F. O. Silva, J. Viegas, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, "All fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on suspended twin-core fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1300-1302 (2010).

Y. Li, L. Chen, E. Harris, X. Bao, "Double-pass in-line fiber taper Mach–Zehnder interferometer sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1750-1752 (2010).

2009

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, G. Badenes, V. Pruneri, "Refractometry based on a photonic crystal fiber interferometer," Opt. Lett. 34, 617-619 (2009).

O. Frazão, T. Martynkien, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, "Optical refractometer based on a birefringent Bragg grating written in an H-shaped fiber," Opt. Lett. 34, 76-78 (2009).

P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, Q. Chena, "Tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131110 (2009).

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, "In-line single-mode optical fiber interferometric refractive index sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2296-2306 (2009).

Z. Ran, Y. Rao, J. Zhang, Z. Liu, B. Xu, "A miniature fiber-optic refractive-index sensor based on laser-machined Fabry–Perot interferometer tip," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5426-5429 (2009).

2008

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, H.-P. Loock, "Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 33, 1105-1107 (2008).

L. Yuan, J. Yang, Z. Liu, "A compact fiber-optic flow velocity sensor based on a twin-core fiber Michelson interferometer," IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1114-1117 (2008).

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, G. Badenes, "Ultrastable in reflection photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer for accurate refractive index sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191106 (2008).

Z. Ran, Y. Rao, W. Liu, X. Liao, K. Chiang, "Laser-micromachined Fabry–Perot optical fiber tip sensor for high-resolution temperature-independent measurement of refractive index," Opt. Exp. 16, 2252-2263 (2008).

T. Wei, Y. Han, Y. Li, H. Tsai, H. Xiao, "Temperature-insensitive miniaturized fiber inline Fabry–Perot interferometer for highly sensitive refractive index measurement," Opt. Exp. 16, 5764-5769 (2008).

2006

Q. Wu, G. Farrell, "All-fiber multimode-interference-based refractometer sensor: Proposal and design," Opt, Lett. 31, 317-319 (2006).

L. Yuan, Z. Liu, J. Yang, "Coupling characteristics between single-core fiber and multicore fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 3237-3239 (2006).

2005

2004

P. L. Swart, "Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576-1580 (2004).

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, D. Talavera, "High resolution refractive index sensing with cladded multimode tapered optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 106-107 (2004).

2002

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, R. Neal, "A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702-1705 (2002).

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, "Holey fiber analysis through the finite-element method," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1530-1532 (2002).

1999

G. J. Veldhuis, L. E. W. van der Veen, P. V. Lambeck, "Integrated optical refractometer based on waveguide bend loss," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 857-864 (1999).

1998

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, G. Edwall, "Fiber optical Bragg grating refractometer," Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51-62 (1998).

1997

G. J. Veldhuis, P. V. Lambeck, "Highly-sensitive passive integrated optical spiral-shaped waveguide refractometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2895-2897 (1997).

1996

J. W. Arkwright, S. J. Hewlett, G. R. Atkins, B. Wu, "High-isolation demultiplexing in bend-tuned twin-core fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1740-1745 (1996).

1986

A. Alphones, G. S. Sanyal, "Propagation characteristics of eccentric core fibers using point-matching method," Proc. IEEE 74, 1456-1459 (1986).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. J. Veldhuis, P. V. Lambeck, "Highly-sensitive passive integrated optical spiral-shaped waveguide refractometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2895-2897 (1997).

P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, Q. Chena, "Tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131110 (2009).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, G. Badenes, "Ultrastable in reflection photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer for accurate refractive index sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191106 (2008).

Electron. Lett.

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, D. Talavera, "High resolution refractive index sensing with cladded multimode tapered optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 106-107 (2004).

Fiber Integr. Opt.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, G. Edwall, "Fiber optical Bragg grating refractometer," Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51-62 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, S. He, "Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247-1249 (2005).

O. Frazao, S. F. O. Silva, J. Viegas, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, "All fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on suspended twin-core fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1300-1302 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. Li, L. Chen, E. Harris, X. Bao, "Double-pass in-line fiber taper Mach–Zehnder interferometer sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1750-1752 (2010).

IEEE Sens. J.

L. Yuan, J. Yang, Z. Liu, "A compact fiber-optic flow velocity sensor based on a twin-core fiber Michelson interferometer," IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1114-1117 (2008).

IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, "Holey fiber analysis through the finite-element method," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1530-1532 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, "In-line single-mode optical fiber interferometric refractive index sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2296-2306 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol.

G. J. Veldhuis, L. E. W. van der Veen, P. V. Lambeck, "Integrated optical refractometer based on waveguide bend loss," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 857-864 (1999).

J. W. Arkwright, S. J. Hewlett, G. R. Atkins, B. Wu, "High-isolation demultiplexing in bend-tuned twin-core fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1740-1745 (1996).

Z. Ran, Y. Rao, J. Zhang, Z. Liu, B. Xu, "A miniature fiber-optic refractive-index sensor based on laser-machined Fabry–Perot interferometer tip," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5426-5429 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

Y. Wang, M. Yang, D. N. Wang, S. Liu, P. Lu, "Fiber in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining for refractive index measurement with high sensitivity," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 27, 370-374 (2010).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

P. L. Swart, "Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576-1580 (2004).

Opt, Lett.

Q. Wu, G. Farrell, "All-fiber multimode-interference-based refractometer sensor: Proposal and design," Opt, Lett. 31, 317-319 (2006).

Opt. Exp.

Z. Ran, Y. Rao, W. Liu, X. Liao, K. Chiang, "Laser-micromachined Fabry–Perot optical fiber tip sensor for high-resolution temperature-independent measurement of refractive index," Opt. Exp. 16, 2252-2263 (2008).

T. Wei, Y. Han, Y. Li, H. Tsai, H. Xiao, "Temperature-insensitive miniaturized fiber inline Fabry–Perot interferometer for highly sensitive refractive index measurement," Opt. Exp. 16, 5764-5769 (2008).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

A. Alphones, G. S. Sanyal, "Propagation characteristics of eccentric core fibers using point-matching method," Proc. IEEE 74, 1456-1459 (1986).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, R. Neal, "A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702-1705 (2002).

Other

S. Feng, H. Li, O. Xu, S. Lu, S. Jian, "Compact in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer using a twin-core fiber," Proc. SPIE (2009) pp. 76301R.

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