Abstract

We report on low-loss patch cords composed of a highly reproducible low-loss fusion splicing of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with a standard single mode fiber (SMF). Distinct from other papers in this area we report on the results for different types of PCFs, including LMA fibers with similar to a SMF core size and a mode field diameter (MFD), as well as polarization maintaining (PM) Bow-Tie PCF with an elliptical GeO<sub>2</sub> doped core and also a suspended-core (SC) PCF with a tiny core. We show that all studied splices between SMF and PCFs exhibit dispersive and non-reciprocal, in view of a light propagation direction, transmission losses. Defined as a larger decrease of a transmitted optical power comparing both propagation directions, achieved splicing losses, are equal to 0.46 ± 0.03 dB, 0.34 ± 0.01 dB, 0.67 ± 0.17 dB and 3.09 ± 0.36 dB at 1550 nm for LMA8, LMA10, Bow-Tie PCF and SC PCFs, respectively. Moreover, additionally to developed low-loss splicing, we report on low-loss patch cords for all mentioned above PCFs spliced on both ends with SMF pigtails ended with FC/APC connectors achieving the total losses at 1550 nm equal to 1.07 ± 0.07 dB for LMA8, $0.72 ± 0.20 dB for LMA10, 1.30 ± 0.06 dB for Bow-Tie PCF, and 9.36 ± 0.20 dB for SC PCF.

© 2011 IEEE

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2011 (1)

L. R. Jaroszewicz, M. Murawski, T. Nasiłowski, K. Stasiewicz, P. Marć, M. Szyman`ski, P. Mergo, "Methodology of splicing large air filling factor suspended core photonic crystal fibres," Opto-Electron. Rev. 19, 256-259 (2011).

2010 (1)

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, "Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure," Opt. Exp. 18, 15113-15121 (2010).

2009 (2)

Z. Xun, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, "Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Commun. 282, 4527-4531 (2009).

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, P. K. A. Wai, "Fusion splicing Holey fibres and single-mode fibres: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 164-166 (2009).

2008 (4)

J. T. Kristensen, A. Houmann, X. Liu, D. Turchinovich, "Low-loss polarization-maintaining fusion splicing of single-mode fibres and hollow-core photonic crystal fibres, relevant for monolithic fibre laser pulse compression," Opt. Exp. 16, 9986-9995 (2008).

Y. Wang, H. Bartelt, S. Bruecjner, J. Kobelke, M. Rothhardt, K. Mörl, W. Ecke, R. Willsch, "Splicing Ge-doped photonic crystal fibres using commercial fusion splicer with default discharge parameters," Opt. Exp. 16, 7258-7263 (2008).

L. Dong, B. K. Thomas, L. Fu, "Highly nonlinear silica suspended core fibres," Opt. Lett. 16, 16423-16430 (2008).

M. Hautakorpi, M. Mattinen, H. Ludvigsen, "Surface-plasmon-resonance sensor based on three-hole microstructured optical fibre," Opt. Exp. 16, 8427-8412 (2008).

2007 (4)

J. C. Knight, D. V. Skryabin, "Nonlinear waveguide optics and photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Exp. 15, 15365-15376 (2007).

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. S. Light, "Reduction of Fresnel back-reflection at splice interface between Hollow Core PCF and single-mode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1020-1022 (2007).

L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibres and conventional single-mode fibres: Microhole collapse effect," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3563-3574 (2007).

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Fusion splicing small-core photonic crystal fibres and single-mode fibres by repeated arc discharges," Opt. Lett. 32, 115-117 (2007).

2006 (4)

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 12, 4080-4087 (2006).

R. Thapa, K. Knabe, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, "Arc fusion splicing of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres for gas-filled fibre cells," Opt. Exp. 14, 9576-9583 (2006).

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, J. V. Badding, "Microstructured optical fibres as high-pressure microfluidic reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).

G. S. Kliros, J. Konstantindis, C. Thraskias, "Prediction of microbedning and splice losses for photonic crystal fibres based on the effective index method," WSEAS. Trans. Commun. 8, 1314-1321 (2006).

2005 (4)

A. D. Yablon, R. T. Bise, "Low-loss high-strength microstructured fibre fusion splices using GRIN fibre lenses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118-120 (2005).

P. S. J. Russell, "Compact stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, "Hole inflation and tapering of stock photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Exp. 13, 6541 (2005).

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, P. St., J. Russell, "Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Lett. 30, 1629 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. M. Fini, "Microstructured fibres for sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004).

2003 (3)

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, P. Shum, "An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fibre using CO2 laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942-944 (2003).

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, "Development of a system for laser splicing photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Exp. 11, 1365-1370 (2003).

B. Bourliaguet, C. Paré, F. Emond, A. Croteau, A. Proulx, R. Vallée, "Microstructured fibre splicing," Opt. Exp. 11, 3412-3417 (2003).

2001 (2)

J. T. Lizier, G. E. Town, "Splice losses in Holey optical fibres," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 466-467 (2001).

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191 (2001).

1999 (2)

1977 (1)

D. Marcuse, "Loss analysis of single-mode fibre splices," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703-718 (1977).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191 (2001).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, "Loss analysis of single-mode fibre splices," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703-718 (1977).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. S. Light, "Reduction of Fresnel back-reflection at splice interface between Hollow Core PCF and single-mode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1020-1022 (2007).

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, P. K. A. Wai, "Fusion splicing Holey fibres and single-mode fibres: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 164-166 (2009).

J. T. Lizier, G. E. Town, "Splice losses in Holey optical fibres," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 466-467 (2001).

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, P. Shum, "An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fibre using CO2 laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942-944 (2003).

A. D. Yablon, R. T. Bise, "Low-loss high-strength microstructured fibre fusion splices using GRIN fibre lenses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118-120 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibres and conventional single-mode fibres: Microhole collapse effect," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3563-3574 (2007).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. M. Fini, "Microstructured fibres for sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004).

Nature (1)

P. S. J. Russell, "Compact stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Xun, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, "Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Commun. 282, 4527-4531 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (10)

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, "Development of a system for laser splicing photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Exp. 11, 1365-1370 (2003).

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 12, 4080-4087 (2006).

R. Thapa, K. Knabe, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, "Arc fusion splicing of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres for gas-filled fibre cells," Opt. Exp. 14, 9576-9583 (2006).

M. Hautakorpi, M. Mattinen, H. Ludvigsen, "Surface-plasmon-resonance sensor based on three-hole microstructured optical fibre," Opt. Exp. 16, 8427-8412 (2008).

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, "Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure," Opt. Exp. 18, 15113-15121 (2010).

J. C. Knight, D. V. Skryabin, "Nonlinear waveguide optics and photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Exp. 15, 15365-15376 (2007).

J. T. Kristensen, A. Houmann, X. Liu, D. Turchinovich, "Low-loss polarization-maintaining fusion splicing of single-mode fibres and hollow-core photonic crystal fibres, relevant for monolithic fibre laser pulse compression," Opt. Exp. 16, 9986-9995 (2008).

B. Bourliaguet, C. Paré, F. Emond, A. Croteau, A. Proulx, R. Vallée, "Microstructured fibre splicing," Opt. Exp. 11, 3412-3417 (2003).

Y. Wang, H. Bartelt, S. Bruecjner, J. Kobelke, M. Rothhardt, K. Mörl, W. Ecke, R. Willsch, "Splicing Ge-doped photonic crystal fibres using commercial fusion splicer with default discharge parameters," Opt. Exp. 16, 7258-7263 (2008).

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, "Hole inflation and tapering of stock photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Exp. 13, 6541 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

L. R. Jaroszewicz, M. Murawski, T. Nasiłowski, K. Stasiewicz, P. Marć, M. Szyman`ski, P. Mergo, "Methodology of splicing large air filling factor suspended core photonic crystal fibres," Opto-Electron. Rev. 19, 256-259 (2011).

Science (1)

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, J. V. Badding, "Microstructured optical fibres as high-pressure microfluidic reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).

WSEAS. Trans. Commun. (1)

G. S. Kliros, J. Konstantindis, C. Thraskias, "Prediction of microbedning and splice losses for photonic crystal fibres based on the effective index method," WSEAS. Trans. Commun. 8, 1314-1321 (2006).

Other (6)

R. K. Sinha, S. K. Varshney, "Estimation of splice loss in photonic crystal fibres," Proc. SPIE (2002) pp. 296-302.

FFS-2000 www.vytran.com.

NKT Photonics http://www.nktphotonics.com/files/files/LMA-8-100409.pdf.

L. R. Jaroszewicz, M. Murawski, K. Stasiewicz, P. Marć, "Low-loss fusion splicing of single-mode fibre and a photonic crystal fibre suitable for construction of a patch cord for measurement devices," Proc. SPIE (2009) pp. 750363-1-75063-4.

NKT Photonics http://www.nktphotonics.com/files/files/LMA-10-071010.pdf.

A. D. Yablon, Optical Fibre Fusion Splicing (Springer, 2005).

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