M. J. Fice, A. Chiuchiarelli, E. Ciaramella, A. J. Seeds, "Homodyne Cherent optical receiver using an optical
injection phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1152-1164 (2011).

S. Zeng, Y. Zhang, B. Li, E. Y. Pun, "Ultrasmall optical logic gates based on silicon
periodic dielectric waveguides," Photon. Nanostruct. 8, 32-37 (2010).

Z. Liu, S. Xiao, L. Cai, Z. Liang, "Multi-format receiver for non-return-to-zero
binary-phase-shift-keyed and non-return-to-zero
amplitude-shift-keyed signals," Opt. Exp. 17, 2918-2925 (2009).

J. Xu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Dong, D. Liu, D. Huang, "Reconfigurable all-optical logic gates for multi-input
differential phase-shift keying signals: Design and
experiments," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5268-5275 (2009).

P. Andalib, N. Granpayeh, "All-optical ultracompact photonic crystal AND gate
based on nonlinear ring resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 10-16 (2009).

B. M. Isfahani, T. A. Tameh, N. Granpayeh, A. R. M. Javan, "All-optical NOR gate based on nonlinear photonic
crystal microring resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1097-1102 (2009).

J. Bai, J. Wang, J. Jiang, X. Chen, H. Li, Y. Qiu, Z. Qiang, "Photonic NOT and NOR gates based on a single compact
photonic crystal ring resonator," Appl. Opt. 48, 6923-6927 (2009).

J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Huang, M. M. Fejer, "Ultrafast all-optical three-input Boolean XOR operation for differential
phase-shift keying signals using periodically poled lithium
niobate," Opt. Lett. 33, 1419-1421 (2008).

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber
system," Opt. Exp. 16, 753-791 (2008).

V. Ferrero, S. Camatel, "Optical phase locking techniques: An overview and a
novel method based on single side sub-carrier
modulation," Opt. Exp. 16, 818-828 (2008).

Y. Wu, T. Shih, "New all-optical logic gates based on the local
nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer," Opt. Exp. 16, 248-257 (2008).

Q. Liu, Z. Quyang, C. J. Wu, C. P. Liu, J. C. Wang, "All-optical half adder based on cross structures in
two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 16, 18992-19000 (2008).

R. Vilar, J. M. Martínez, F. Ramos, J. Martí, "All-optical dedcrementing of a packet's time-to-live
(TTL) field using logic XOR gates," Opt. Exp. 16, 19734-19740 (2008).

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Li, "Optical switches and logic gates based on
self-collimated beams in two-dimensional photonic
crystals," Opt. Exp. 15, 9287-9292 (2007).

J. Xiao, X. Liu, X. Sum, "Design of an ultracompact MMI wavelength demultiplexer
in slot waveguide structures," Opt. Exp. 15, 8300-8308 (2007).

D. X. Dai, S. L. He, "Optimization of ultracompact polarization-insensitive
multimode interference couplers based on ridge
waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2017-2019 (2006).

Z. Zhu, W. Ye, J. Ji, X. Yuan, C. Zen, "High-contrast light-by-light switching and AND gate
based on nonlinear photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 14, 1783-1788 (2006).

T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "All-optical logic gates based on nonlinear
slot-waveguide couplers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 684-691 (2006).

Z. Li, G. Li, "Ultrahigh-speed reconfigurable logic gates based on
four wave mixing in a semiconductor optical
amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1341-1343 (2006).

K. Mishina, A. Marta, S. Mitani, T. Miyahara, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Hatta, K. Motoshima, K. Kitayama, "NRZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation-format conversion using
SOA-MZI wavelength converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3751-3758 (2006).

N. Deng, K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, L.-K. Chen, "An all-optical XOR logic gate for high-speed RZ-DPSK
signals by FWM in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 702-707 (2006).

Z. Li, Z. Chen, B. Li, "Optical pulse controlled all-optical logic gates in
SiGe/Si multimode interference," Opt. Exp. 13, 1033-1038 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed
transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

M. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Ye, "All-optical XOR logic gates: Technologies and experiment
demonstrations," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S19-S24 (2005).

Z. Zalevsky, A. Rudnitsky, "Nano photonic and ultra fast all-optical processing
modules," Opt. Exp. 13, 10272-10284 (2005).

R. Clavero, J. M. Martínez, F. Ramos, J. Martí, "All-optical packet routing scheme for optical
label-swapping networks," Opt. Exp. 12, 4326-4332 (2004).

J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection
techniques for DWDM system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).

A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, L. Stulz, "Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45
photons/bit sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99-101 (2003).

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, E. Burrows, "25$\,\times\,$40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12$\,\times\,$100-km NZDF with
50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 467-469 (2003).

T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, K. Kasahara, "A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission
over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due
to nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1933-1943 (2003).

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, P.-T. Ho, "Optical signal processing using nonlinear
semiconductor microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).

Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, "Finite element method using port truncation by
perfectly matched layer boundary conditions for optical waveguide
discontinuity problems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 463-468 (2002).

C. Xu, X. Liu, X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral
efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2001).

D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, "Approaches to optical internet packet
switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 116-122 (2000).

D. J. Blumenthal, B. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and
technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).

F. L. Texeira, W. C. Chew, "General closed-form PML constitutive tensors to match
arbitrary bianisotropic and dispersive linear
media," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 8, 223-225 (1998).

L. B. Soldano, C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on
self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, "Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of
multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1001-1009 (1994).

E. Bonek, W. R. Leeb, A. L. Scholtz, H. K. Phillipp, "Optical PLLs see the light," Microwaves & RF 22, 65-70 (1983).

M. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Ye, "All-optical XOR logic gates: Technologies and experiment
demonstrations," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S19-S24 (2005).

D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, "Approaches to optical internet packet
switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 116-122 (2000).

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, P.-T. Ho, "Optical signal processing using nonlinear
semiconductor microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).

C. Xu, X. Liu, X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral
efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2001).

N. Deng, K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, L.-K. Chen, "An all-optical XOR logic gate for high-speed RZ-DPSK
signals by FWM in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 702-707 (2006).

J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection
techniques for DWDM system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).

F. L. Texeira, W. C. Chew, "General closed-form PML constitutive tensors to match
arbitrary bianisotropic and dispersive linear
media," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 8, 223-225 (1998).

D. X. Dai, S. L. He, "Optimization of ultracompact polarization-insensitive
multimode interference couplers based on ridge
waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2017-2019 (2006).

A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, L. Stulz, "Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45
photons/bit sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99-101 (2003).

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, E. Burrows, "25$\,\times\,$40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12$\,\times\,$100-km NZDF with
50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 467-469 (2003).

Z. Li, G. Li, "Ultrahigh-speed reconfigurable logic gates based on
four wave mixing in a semiconductor optical
amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1341-1343 (2006).

D. J. Blumenthal, B. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and
technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).

T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, K. Kasahara, "A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission
over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due
to nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1933-1943 (2003).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed
transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

K. Mishina, A. Marta, S. Mitani, T. Miyahara, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Hatta, K. Motoshima, K. Kitayama, "NRZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation-format conversion using
SOA-MZI wavelength converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3751-3758 (2006).

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, "Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of
multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1001-1009 (1994).

M. J. Fice, A. Chiuchiarelli, E. Ciaramella, A. J. Seeds, "Homodyne Cherent optical receiver using an optical
injection phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1152-1164 (2011).

J. Xu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Dong, D. Liu, D. Huang, "Reconfigurable all-optical logic gates for multi-input
differential phase-shift keying signals: Design and
experiments," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5268-5275 (2009).

Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, "Finite element method using port truncation by
perfectly matched layer boundary conditions for optical waveguide
discontinuity problems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 463-468 (2002).

L. B. Soldano, C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on
self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "All-optical logic gates based on nonlinear
slot-waveguide couplers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 684-691 (2006).

P. Andalib, N. Granpayeh, "All-optical ultracompact photonic crystal AND gate
based on nonlinear ring resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 10-16 (2009).

B. M. Isfahani, T. A. Tameh, N. Granpayeh, A. R. M. Javan, "All-optical NOR gate based on nonlinear photonic
crystal microring resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1097-1102 (2009).

E. Bonek, W. R. Leeb, A. L. Scholtz, H. K. Phillipp, "Optical PLLs see the light," Microwaves & RF 22, 65-70 (1983).

J. Xiao, X. Liu, X. Sum, "Design of an ultracompact MMI wavelength demultiplexer
in slot waveguide structures," Opt. Exp. 15, 8300-8308 (2007).

Z. Li, Z. Chen, B. Li, "Optical pulse controlled all-optical logic gates in
SiGe/Si multimode interference," Opt. Exp. 13, 1033-1038 (2005).

Z. Zhu, W. Ye, J. Ji, X. Yuan, C. Zen, "High-contrast light-by-light switching and AND gate
based on nonlinear photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 14, 1783-1788 (2006).

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Li, "Optical switches and logic gates based on
self-collimated beams in two-dimensional photonic
crystals," Opt. Exp. 15, 9287-9292 (2007).

Y. Wu, T. Shih, "New all-optical logic gates based on the local
nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer," Opt. Exp. 16, 248-257 (2008).

Q. Liu, Z. Quyang, C. J. Wu, C. P. Liu, J. C. Wang, "All-optical half adder based on cross structures in
two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 16, 18992-19000 (2008).

R. Clavero, J. M. Martínez, F. Ramos, J. Martí, "All-optical packet routing scheme for optical
label-swapping networks," Opt. Exp. 12, 4326-4332 (2004).

R. Vilar, J. M. Martínez, F. Ramos, J. Martí, "All-optical dedcrementing of a packet's time-to-live
(TTL) field using logic XOR gates," Opt. Exp. 16, 19734-19740 (2008).

Z. Zalevsky, A. Rudnitsky, "Nano photonic and ultra fast all-optical processing
modules," Opt. Exp. 13, 10272-10284 (2005).

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber
system," Opt. Exp. 16, 753-791 (2008).

V. Ferrero, S. Camatel, "Optical phase locking techniques: An overview and a
novel method based on single side sub-carrier
modulation," Opt. Exp. 16, 818-828 (2008).

Z. Liu, S. Xiao, L. Cai, Z. Liang, "Multi-format receiver for non-return-to-zero
binary-phase-shift-keyed and non-return-to-zero
amplitude-shift-keyed signals," Opt. Exp. 17, 2918-2925 (2009).

S. Zeng, Y. Zhang, B. Li, E. Y. Pun, "Ultrasmall optical logic gates based on silicon
periodic dielectric waveguides," Photon. Nanostruct. 8, 32-37 (2010).

M. L. Gilmore, F. R. Steel, J. A. Tempka, Digital Detection System for Differential Phase Shift
Keyed Signal U.S. Patent 3 993 956 (1976).

K.-P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication
Systems (Springer Science Business Media Inc, 2005).