Abstract

We present a novel design method and potential application for optical XOR, XNOR, NAND, and OR logic gates for binary-phase-shift-keyed signal processing devices. The devices are composed of multi-mode interference waveguides and convert the phase information of the input signal to amplitude at the output. We apply the finite element method for numerical simulations, and the evaluated least ON to OFF logic-level contrast ratios for the XOR, XNOR, NAND, and OR logic gates are 21.5 dB, 21.5 dB, 22.3 dB, and 22.3 dB, respectively. The proposed logic gates are extremely promising signal processing devices for binary-phase-shift-keyed signals in packet switching systems.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, P.-T. Ho, "Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
  2. Z. Li, Z. Chen, B. Li, "Optical pulse controlled all-optical logic gates in SiGe/Si multimode interference," Opt. Exp. 13, 1033-1038 (2005).
  3. Z. Zhu, W. Ye, J. Ji, X. Yuan, C. Zen, "High-contrast light-by-light switching and AND gate based on nonlinear photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 14, 1783-1788 (2006).
  4. T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "All-optical logic gates based on nonlinear slot-waveguide couplers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 684-691 (2006).
  5. Z. Li, G. Li, "Ultrahigh-speed reconfigurable logic gates based on four wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1341-1343 (2006).
  6. Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Li, "Optical switches and logic gates based on self-collimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 15, 9287-9292 (2007).
  7. Y. Wu, T. Shih, "New all-optical logic gates based on the local nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer," Opt. Exp. 16, 248-257 (2008).
  8. Q. Liu, Z. Quyang, C. J. Wu, C. P. Liu, J. C. Wang, "All-optical half adder based on cross structures in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 16, 18992-19000 (2008).
  9. P. Andalib, N. Granpayeh, "All-optical ultracompact photonic crystal AND gate based on nonlinear ring resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 10-16 (2009).
  10. B. M. Isfahani, T. A. Tameh, N. Granpayeh, A. R. M. Javan, "All-optical NOR gate based on nonlinear photonic crystal microring resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1097-1102 (2009).
  11. J. Bai, J. Wang, J. Jiang, X. Chen, H. Li, Y. Qiu, Z. Qiang, "Photonic NOT and NOR gates based on a single compact photonic crystal ring resonator," Appl. Opt. 48, 6923-6927 (2009).
  12. S. Zeng, Y. Zhang, B. Li, E. Y. Pun, "Ultrasmall optical logic gates based on silicon periodic dielectric waveguides," Photon. Nanostruct. 8, 32-37 (2010).
  13. M. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Ye, "All-optical XOR logic gates: Technologies and experiment demonstrations," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S19-S24 (2005).
  14. Z. Zalevsky, A. Rudnitsky, "Nano photonic and ultra fast all-optical processing modules," Opt. Exp. 13, 10272-10284 (2005).
  15. D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, "Approaches to optical internet packet switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 116-122 (2000).
  16. D. J. Blumenthal, B. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).
  17. R. Clavero, J. M. Martínez, F. Ramos, J. Martí, "All-optical packet routing scheme for optical label-swapping networks," Opt. Exp. 12, 4326-4332 (2004).
  18. R. Vilar, J. M. Martínez, F. Ramos, J. Martí, "All-optical dedcrementing of a packet's time-to-live (TTL) field using logic XOR gates," Opt. Exp. 16, 19734-19740 (2008).
  19. K. Mishina, A. Marta, S. Mitani, T. Miyahara, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Hatta, K. Motoshima, K. Kitayama, "NRZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation-format conversion using SOA-MZI wavelength converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3751-3758 (2006).
  20. Z. Liu, S. Xiao, L. Cai, Z. Liang, "Multi-format receiver for non-return-to-zero binary-phase-shift-keyed and non-return-to-zero amplitude-shift-keyed signals," Opt. Exp. 17, 2918-2925 (2009).
  21. A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, L. Stulz, "Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99-101 (2003).
  22. A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, E. Burrows, "25$\,\times\,$40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12$\,\times\,$100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 467-469 (2003).
  23. T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, K. Kasahara, "A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1933-1943 (2003).
  24. M. L. Gilmore, F. R. Steel, J. A. Tempka, Digital Detection System for Differential Phase Shift Keyed Signal U.S. Patent 3 993 956 (1976).
  25. C. Xu, X. Liu, X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2001).
  26. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
  27. N. Deng, K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, L.-K. Chen, "An all-optical XOR logic gate for high-speed RZ-DPSK signals by FWM in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 702-707 (2006).
  28. J. Xu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Dong, D. Liu, D. Huang, "Reconfigurable all-optical logic gates for multi-input differential phase-shift keying signals: Design and experiments," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5268-5275 (2009).
  29. J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Huang, M. M. Fejer, "Ultrafast all-optical three-input Boolean XOR operation for differential phase-shift keying signals using periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 33, 1419-1421 (2008).
  30. E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber system," Opt. Exp. 16, 753-791 (2008).
  31. V. Ferrero, S. Camatel, "Optical phase locking techniques: An overview and a novel method based on single side sub-carrier modulation," Opt. Exp. 16, 818-828 (2008).
  32. M. J. Fice, A. Chiuchiarelli, E. Ciaramella, A. J. Seeds, "Homodyne Cherent optical receiver using an optical injection phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1152-1164 (2011).
  33. J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).
  34. P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, "Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1001-1009 (1994).
  35. D. X. Dai, S. L. He, "Optimization of ultracompact polarization-insensitive multimode interference couplers based on ridge waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2017-2019 (2006).
  36. J. Xiao, X. Liu, X. Sum, "Design of an ultracompact MMI wavelength demultiplexer in slot waveguide structures," Opt. Exp. 15, 8300-8308 (2007).
  37. Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, "Finite element method using port truncation by perfectly matched layer boundary conditions for optical waveguide discontinuity problems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 463-468 (2002).
  38. L. B. Soldano, C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
  39. E. Bonek, W. R. Leeb, A. L. Scholtz, H. K. Phillipp, "Optical PLLs see the light," Microwaves & RF 22, 65-70 (1983).
  40. K.-P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer Science Business Media Inc, 2005).
  41. F. L. Texeira, W. C. Chew, "General closed-form PML constitutive tensors to match arbitrary bianisotropic and dispersive linear media," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 8, 223-225 (1998).

2011 (1)

M. J. Fice, A. Chiuchiarelli, E. Ciaramella, A. J. Seeds, "Homodyne Cherent optical receiver using an optical injection phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1152-1164 (2011).

2010 (1)

S. Zeng, Y. Zhang, B. Li, E. Y. Pun, "Ultrasmall optical logic gates based on silicon periodic dielectric waveguides," Photon. Nanostruct. 8, 32-37 (2010).

2009 (5)

P. Andalib, N. Granpayeh, "All-optical ultracompact photonic crystal AND gate based on nonlinear ring resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 10-16 (2009).

B. M. Isfahani, T. A. Tameh, N. Granpayeh, A. R. M. Javan, "All-optical NOR gate based on nonlinear photonic crystal microring resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1097-1102 (2009).

J. Bai, J. Wang, J. Jiang, X. Chen, H. Li, Y. Qiu, Z. Qiang, "Photonic NOT and NOR gates based on a single compact photonic crystal ring resonator," Appl. Opt. 48, 6923-6927 (2009).

Z. Liu, S. Xiao, L. Cai, Z. Liang, "Multi-format receiver for non-return-to-zero binary-phase-shift-keyed and non-return-to-zero amplitude-shift-keyed signals," Opt. Exp. 17, 2918-2925 (2009).

J. Xu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Dong, D. Liu, D. Huang, "Reconfigurable all-optical logic gates for multi-input differential phase-shift keying signals: Design and experiments," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5268-5275 (2009).

2008 (6)

J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Huang, M. M. Fejer, "Ultrafast all-optical three-input Boolean XOR operation for differential phase-shift keying signals using periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 33, 1419-1421 (2008).

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber system," Opt. Exp. 16, 753-791 (2008).

V. Ferrero, S. Camatel, "Optical phase locking techniques: An overview and a novel method based on single side sub-carrier modulation," Opt. Exp. 16, 818-828 (2008).

Y. Wu, T. Shih, "New all-optical logic gates based on the local nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer," Opt. Exp. 16, 248-257 (2008).

Q. Liu, Z. Quyang, C. J. Wu, C. P. Liu, J. C. Wang, "All-optical half adder based on cross structures in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 16, 18992-19000 (2008).

R. Vilar, J. M. Martínez, F. Ramos, J. Martí, "All-optical dedcrementing of a packet's time-to-live (TTL) field using logic XOR gates," Opt. Exp. 16, 19734-19740 (2008).

2007 (2)

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Li, "Optical switches and logic gates based on self-collimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 15, 9287-9292 (2007).

J. Xiao, X. Liu, X. Sum, "Design of an ultracompact MMI wavelength demultiplexer in slot waveguide structures," Opt. Exp. 15, 8300-8308 (2007).

2006 (6)

N. Deng, K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, L.-K. Chen, "An all-optical XOR logic gate for high-speed RZ-DPSK signals by FWM in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 702-707 (2006).

K. Mishina, A. Marta, S. Mitani, T. Miyahara, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Hatta, K. Motoshima, K. Kitayama, "NRZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation-format conversion using SOA-MZI wavelength converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3751-3758 (2006).

Z. Zhu, W. Ye, J. Ji, X. Yuan, C. Zen, "High-contrast light-by-light switching and AND gate based on nonlinear photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 14, 1783-1788 (2006).

T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "All-optical logic gates based on nonlinear slot-waveguide couplers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 684-691 (2006).

Z. Li, G. Li, "Ultrahigh-speed reconfigurable logic gates based on four wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1341-1343 (2006).

D. X. Dai, S. L. He, "Optimization of ultracompact polarization-insensitive multimode interference couplers based on ridge waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2017-2019 (2006).

2005 (4)

Z. Li, Z. Chen, B. Li, "Optical pulse controlled all-optical logic gates in SiGe/Si multimode interference," Opt. Exp. 13, 1033-1038 (2005).

M. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Ye, "All-optical XOR logic gates: Technologies and experiment demonstrations," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S19-S24 (2005).

Z. Zalevsky, A. Rudnitsky, "Nano photonic and ultra fast all-optical processing modules," Opt. Exp. 13, 10272-10284 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

2004 (2)

J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).

R. Clavero, J. M. Martínez, F. Ramos, J. Martí, "All-optical packet routing scheme for optical label-swapping networks," Opt. Exp. 12, 4326-4332 (2004).

2003 (3)

A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, L. Stulz, "Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99-101 (2003).

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, E. Burrows, "25$\,\times\,$40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12$\,\times\,$100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 467-469 (2003).

T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, K. Kasahara, "A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1933-1943 (2003).

2002 (2)

Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, "Finite element method using port truncation by perfectly matched layer boundary conditions for optical waveguide discontinuity problems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 463-468 (2002).

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, P.-T. Ho, "Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).

2001 (1)

C. Xu, X. Liu, X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2001).

2000 (2)

D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, "Approaches to optical internet packet switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 116-122 (2000).

D. J. Blumenthal, B. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).

1998 (1)

F. L. Texeira, W. C. Chew, "General closed-form PML constitutive tensors to match arbitrary bianisotropic and dispersive linear media," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 8, 223-225 (1998).

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano, C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

1994 (1)

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, "Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1001-1009 (1994).

1983 (1)

E. Bonek, W. R. Leeb, A. L. Scholtz, H. K. Phillipp, "Optical PLLs see the light," Microwaves & RF 22, 65-70 (1983).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

M. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Ye, "All-optical XOR logic gates: Technologies and experiment demonstrations," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S19-S24 (2005).

D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, "Approaches to optical internet packet switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 116-122 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, P.-T. Ho, "Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).

C. Xu, X. Liu, X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2001).

N. Deng, K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, L.-K. Chen, "An all-optical XOR logic gate for high-speed RZ-DPSK signals by FWM in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 702-707 (2006).

J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).

IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. (1)

F. L. Texeira, W. C. Chew, "General closed-form PML constitutive tensors to match arbitrary bianisotropic and dispersive linear media," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 8, 223-225 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

D. X. Dai, S. L. He, "Optimization of ultracompact polarization-insensitive multimode interference couplers based on ridge waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2017-2019 (2006).

A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, L. Stulz, "Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99-101 (2003).

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, E. Burrows, "25$\,\times\,$40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12$\,\times\,$100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 467-469 (2003).

Z. Li, G. Li, "Ultrahigh-speed reconfigurable logic gates based on four wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1341-1343 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

D. J. Blumenthal, B. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).

T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, K. Kasahara, "A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1933-1943 (2003).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

K. Mishina, A. Marta, S. Mitani, T. Miyahara, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Hatta, K. Motoshima, K. Kitayama, "NRZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation-format conversion using SOA-MZI wavelength converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3751-3758 (2006).

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, "Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1001-1009 (1994).

M. J. Fice, A. Chiuchiarelli, E. Ciaramella, A. J. Seeds, "Homodyne Cherent optical receiver using an optical injection phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1152-1164 (2011).

J. Xu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Dong, D. Liu, D. Huang, "Reconfigurable all-optical logic gates for multi-input differential phase-shift keying signals: Design and experiments," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5268-5275 (2009).

Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, "Finite element method using port truncation by perfectly matched layer boundary conditions for optical waveguide discontinuity problems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 463-468 (2002).

L. B. Soldano, C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (3)

T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "All-optical logic gates based on nonlinear slot-waveguide couplers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 684-691 (2006).

P. Andalib, N. Granpayeh, "All-optical ultracompact photonic crystal AND gate based on nonlinear ring resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 10-16 (2009).

B. M. Isfahani, T. A. Tameh, N. Granpayeh, A. R. M. Javan, "All-optical NOR gate based on nonlinear photonic crystal microring resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1097-1102 (2009).

Microwaves & RF (1)

E. Bonek, W. R. Leeb, A. L. Scholtz, H. K. Phillipp, "Optical PLLs see the light," Microwaves & RF 22, 65-70 (1983).

Opt. Exp. (12)

J. Xiao, X. Liu, X. Sum, "Design of an ultracompact MMI wavelength demultiplexer in slot waveguide structures," Opt. Exp. 15, 8300-8308 (2007).

Z. Li, Z. Chen, B. Li, "Optical pulse controlled all-optical logic gates in SiGe/Si multimode interference," Opt. Exp. 13, 1033-1038 (2005).

Z. Zhu, W. Ye, J. Ji, X. Yuan, C. Zen, "High-contrast light-by-light switching and AND gate based on nonlinear photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 14, 1783-1788 (2006).

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Li, "Optical switches and logic gates based on self-collimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 15, 9287-9292 (2007).

Y. Wu, T. Shih, "New all-optical logic gates based on the local nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer," Opt. Exp. 16, 248-257 (2008).

Q. Liu, Z. Quyang, C. J. Wu, C. P. Liu, J. C. Wang, "All-optical half adder based on cross structures in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 16, 18992-19000 (2008).

R. Clavero, J. M. Martínez, F. Ramos, J. Martí, "All-optical packet routing scheme for optical label-swapping networks," Opt. Exp. 12, 4326-4332 (2004).

R. Vilar, J. M. Martínez, F. Ramos, J. Martí, "All-optical dedcrementing of a packet's time-to-live (TTL) field using logic XOR gates," Opt. Exp. 16, 19734-19740 (2008).

Z. Zalevsky, A. Rudnitsky, "Nano photonic and ultra fast all-optical processing modules," Opt. Exp. 13, 10272-10284 (2005).

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber system," Opt. Exp. 16, 753-791 (2008).

V. Ferrero, S. Camatel, "Optical phase locking techniques: An overview and a novel method based on single side sub-carrier modulation," Opt. Exp. 16, 818-828 (2008).

Z. Liu, S. Xiao, L. Cai, Z. Liang, "Multi-format receiver for non-return-to-zero binary-phase-shift-keyed and non-return-to-zero amplitude-shift-keyed signals," Opt. Exp. 17, 2918-2925 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Nanostruct. (1)

S. Zeng, Y. Zhang, B. Li, E. Y. Pun, "Ultrasmall optical logic gates based on silicon periodic dielectric waveguides," Photon. Nanostruct. 8, 32-37 (2010).

Other (2)

M. L. Gilmore, F. R. Steel, J. A. Tempka, Digital Detection System for Differential Phase Shift Keyed Signal U.S. Patent 3 993 956 (1976).

K.-P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer Science Business Media Inc, 2005).

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