Abstract

The authors report the formation of air voids at GaN/cone-shaped pattern sapphire substrate interface by laser scribing and lateral etching with one-step growth. With 5 and 20 min lateral etching, it was found that pyramid-like air voids were formed with an average height of 0.98 and 1.9 $\mu$m, respectively, on top of each cone of the substrate. It was also found that we can enhance LED output power by 11.5% by etching the wafers for 20 min. It was also found that the simulated results agree well with the experimentally observed data.

© 2011 IEEE

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  2. S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. M. Tsai, "400 nm InGaN/GaN and InGaN/AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 744-748 (2002).
  3. S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, "Candela-class high brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687-1689 (1994).
  4. C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based, light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surfaqce," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).
  5. L. W. Wu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. P. Hsu, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, "In$_{0.23}$Ga$_{0.77}$N/GaN MQW LEDs with a low temperature GaN cap layer," Solid State Electron. 47, 2027-2030 (2003).
  6. K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, T. Tsunekawa, T. Jyouichi, Y. Imada, M. Kato, H. Kudo, T. Taguchi, "High output power InGaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 188, 121-125 (2001).
  7. Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, "Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs," J. Crystal Growth 231, 466-470 (2004).
  8. S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, Y. K. Su, C. S. Chang, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, C. W. Kuo, S. C. Chen, C. H. Liu, "Nitride-based LEDs fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates," Solid State Electron. 47, 1539-1542 (2003).
  9. J. H. Lee, D. Y. Lee, B. W. Oh, J. H. Lee, "Comparison of InGaN-based LEDs grown on conventional sapphire and cone-shape-patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 157-163 (2010).
  10. H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, S. W. S. Chi, "Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition," J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H304-H307 (2010).
  11. E. H. Park, J. Jang, S. Gupta, I. Ferguson, C. H. Kim, S. K. Jeon, J. S. Park, "Air-voids embedded high efficiency InGaN-light emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 191103.
  12. C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, K. P. Huang, "Blue light-emitting diodes with an embedded native gallium oxide pattern structure," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 1431-1433 (2010).
  13. M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, "High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, (2009) Art. ID 041109.
  14. J. H. Lee, D. Y. Lee, B. W. Oh, J. H. Lee, "Comparison of InGaN-based LEDs grown on conventional sapphire and cone-shape-patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 157-163 (2010).
  15. X. J. Ning, F. R. Chien, P. Pirouz, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, "Growth defects in GaN films on sapphire: The probable origin of threading dislocations," J. Mater. Res. 11, 580-592 (1996).
  16. C. H. Ko, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. H. Lan, J. F. Chen, T. M. Kuan, Y. C. Huang, C. I. Chiang, J. Webb, W. J. Lin, "On the carrier concentration and Hall mobility in GaN epitaxial layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L226-L228 (2002).
  17. D. S. Kuo, S. J. Chang, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, S. J. Hon, S. C. Hung, "Nitride-based LEDs with phosphoric acid etched undercut sidewalls," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 510-512 (2009).
  18. N. Okada, T. Murata, K. Tadatomo, H. C. Chang, K. Watanabe, "Growth of GaN layer and characterization of light-emitting diode using random-cone patterned sapphire substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 122103-1-122103-1 (2009).
  19. S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, J. C. Ke, "Highly reliable nitride based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1439-1443 (2003).
  20. W. C. Lai, L. C. Peng, M. N. Chang, S. C. Shei, Y. P. Hsu, J. K. Sheu, "GaN-based LED with embedded microlens-like structure," J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, H976-H978 (2009).

2010 (4)

J. H. Lee, D. Y. Lee, B. W. Oh, J. H. Lee, "Comparison of InGaN-based LEDs grown on conventional sapphire and cone-shape-patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 157-163 (2010).

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, S. W. S. Chi, "Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition," J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H304-H307 (2010).

C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, K. P. Huang, "Blue light-emitting diodes with an embedded native gallium oxide pattern structure," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 1431-1433 (2010).

J. H. Lee, D. Y. Lee, B. W. Oh, J. H. Lee, "Comparison of InGaN-based LEDs grown on conventional sapphire and cone-shape-patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 157-163 (2010).

2009 (4)

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, "High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, (2009) Art. ID 041109.

D. S. Kuo, S. J. Chang, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, S. J. Hon, S. C. Hung, "Nitride-based LEDs with phosphoric acid etched undercut sidewalls," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 510-512 (2009).

N. Okada, T. Murata, K. Tadatomo, H. C. Chang, K. Watanabe, "Growth of GaN layer and characterization of light-emitting diode using random-cone patterned sapphire substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 122103-1-122103-1 (2009).

W. C. Lai, L. C. Peng, M. N. Chang, S. C. Shei, Y. P. Hsu, J. K. Sheu, "GaN-based LED with embedded microlens-like structure," J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, H976-H978 (2009).

2008 (1)

E. H. Park, J. Jang, S. Gupta, I. Ferguson, C. H. Kim, S. K. Jeon, J. S. Park, "Air-voids embedded high efficiency InGaN-light emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 191103.

2004 (1)

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, "Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs," J. Crystal Growth 231, 466-470 (2004).

2003 (4)

S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, Y. K. Su, C. S. Chang, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, C. W. Kuo, S. C. Chen, C. H. Liu, "Nitride-based LEDs fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates," Solid State Electron. 47, 1539-1542 (2003).

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based, light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surfaqce," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).

L. W. Wu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. P. Hsu, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, "In$_{0.23}$Ga$_{0.77}$N/GaN MQW LEDs with a low temperature GaN cap layer," Solid State Electron. 47, 2027-2030 (2003).

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, J. C. Ke, "Highly reliable nitride based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1439-1443 (2003).

2002 (2)

C. H. Ko, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. H. Lan, J. F. Chen, T. M. Kuan, Y. C. Huang, C. I. Chiang, J. Webb, W. J. Lin, "On the carrier concentration and Hall mobility in GaN epitaxial layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L226-L228 (2002).

S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. M. Tsai, "400 nm InGaN/GaN and InGaN/AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 744-748 (2002).

2001 (1)

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, T. Tsunekawa, T. Jyouichi, Y. Imada, M. Kato, H. Kudo, T. Taguchi, "High output power InGaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 188, 121-125 (2001).

1996 (1)

X. J. Ning, F. R. Chien, P. Pirouz, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, "Growth defects in GaN films on sapphire: The probable origin of threading dislocations," J. Mater. Res. 11, 580-592 (1996).

1994 (2)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, "High-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-green-light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 8189-8191 (1994).

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, "Candela-class high brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687-1689 (1994).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, "Candela-class high brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687-1689 (1994).

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, "High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, (2009) Art. ID 041109.

E. H. Park, J. Jang, S. Gupta, I. Ferguson, C. H. Kim, S. K. Jeon, J. S. Park, "Air-voids embedded high efficiency InGaN-light emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 191103.

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, K. P. Huang, "Blue light-emitting diodes with an embedded native gallium oxide pattern structure," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 1431-1433 (2010).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, J. C. Ke, "Highly reliable nitride based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1439-1443 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. M. Tsai, "400 nm InGaN/GaN and InGaN/AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 744-748 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. S. Kuo, S. J. Chang, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, S. J. Hon, S. C. Hung, "Nitride-based LEDs with phosphoric acid etched undercut sidewalls," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 510-512 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

J. H. Lee, D. Y. Lee, B. W. Oh, J. H. Lee, "Comparison of InGaN-based LEDs grown on conventional sapphire and cone-shape-patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 157-163 (2010).

J. H. Lee, D. Y. Lee, B. W. Oh, J. H. Lee, "Comparison of InGaN-based LEDs grown on conventional sapphire and cone-shape-patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 157-163 (2010).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, "High-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-green-light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 8189-8191 (1994).

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based, light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surfaqce," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).

N. Okada, T. Murata, K. Tadatomo, H. C. Chang, K. Watanabe, "Growth of GaN layer and characterization of light-emitting diode using random-cone patterned sapphire substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 122103-1-122103-1 (2009).

J. Crystal Growth (1)

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, "Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs," J. Crystal Growth 231, 466-470 (2004).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (2)

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, S. W. S. Chi, "Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition," J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H304-H307 (2010).

W. C. Lai, L. C. Peng, M. N. Chang, S. C. Shei, Y. P. Hsu, J. K. Sheu, "GaN-based LED with embedded microlens-like structure," J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, H976-H978 (2009).

J. Mater. Res. (1)

X. J. Ning, F. R. Chien, P. Pirouz, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, "Growth defects in GaN films on sapphire: The probable origin of threading dislocations," J. Mater. Res. 11, 580-592 (1996).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. H. Ko, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. H. Lan, J. F. Chen, T. M. Kuan, Y. C. Huang, C. I. Chiang, J. Webb, W. J. Lin, "On the carrier concentration and Hall mobility in GaN epitaxial layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L226-L228 (2002).

Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) (1)

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, T. Tsunekawa, T. Jyouichi, Y. Imada, M. Kato, H. Kudo, T. Taguchi, "High output power InGaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 188, 121-125 (2001).

Solid State Electron. (2)

S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, Y. K. Su, C. S. Chang, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, C. W. Kuo, S. C. Chen, C. H. Liu, "Nitride-based LEDs fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates," Solid State Electron. 47, 1539-1542 (2003).

L. W. Wu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. P. Hsu, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, "In$_{0.23}$Ga$_{0.77}$N/GaN MQW LEDs with a low temperature GaN cap layer," Solid State Electron. 47, 2027-2030 (2003).

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