Abstract

In this paper, we present the design, fabrication, and characterization of two monolithically InP-based integrated electro-optically tunable filters. The combination of these filters can be used to achieve a filter with a narrow passband and a large free spectral range. These filters are designed to be used in an integrated tunable laser source in the 1600–1800 nm wavelength region using active–passive integration technology. The fact that these filters worked successfully shows that this integration technology, originally designed to be used around 1550 nm wavelength, can also be used successfully in the 1600–1800 nm wavelength region without a large penalty in performance. The two filters, a high-resolution arrayed waveguide grating-type filters and a low-resolution multimode interferometer-tree-type filter are made tunable using 5 mm long electro-optic phase modulators in the arms of the waveguide arrays. Measurements show that these filters can be tuned over a wavelength range of more than 100 nm with an accuracy of 0.1 nm (1% of the free spectral range) for the high-resolution filter and an accuracy of 9 nm (4% of the free spectral range) for the low-resolution filter.

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  1. L. A. Coldren, "Monolithic tunable diode lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 988-999 (2000).
  2. T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, "InP-InGaAsP integrated 1$\,\times\,$5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1063-1065 (2008).
  3. A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography—Principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
  4. T. Zimmermann, J. Rietdorf, R. Pepperkok, "Spectral imaging and its applications in live cell microscopy," FEBS Lett. 546, 87-92 (2003).
  5. P. Werle, "A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors," Spectrochimica Acta A 54, 197-236 (1998).
  6. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
  7. M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110–1-071110–3 (2006).
  8. D. H. P. Maat, F. H. Groen, R. C. Horsten, Y. C. Zhu, P. E. W. Kruis, C. G. P. Herben, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. K. Smit, "Tunable phased array demultiplexer on InP featuring wide-range tuning and pass-band shaping," 9th Eur. Conf. Integr. Opt. TorinoItaly (1999) Postdeadline Papers.
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  10. A. J. Ward, D. J. Robbins, G. Busico, E. Barton, L. Ponnampalam, J. P. Duck, N. D. Whitbread, P. J. Williams, D. C. J. Reid, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, "Widely tunable DS-DBR laser width monolithically integrated SOA: Design and performance," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 149-156 (2005).
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  13. C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, "40-wavelength rapidly digitally tunable laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1348-1350 (1999).
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  16. J.-F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavaillès, M. Erman, P. Jarry, M. Renaud, "InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: Theory and experiment," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 63-69 (1992).
  17. J. H. den Besten, Integration of multiwavelength lasers with fast electro-optical modulators Ph.D. dissertation Technische Universiteit EindhovenEindhovenThe Netherlands (2004).
  18. L. Zhang, J. Sinsky, D. van Thourhout, N. Sauer, L. Stulz, A. Adamiecki, S. Chandrasekhar, "Low-voltage high-speed travelling wave InGaAsP-InP phase modulator," IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1831-1833 (2004).
  19. V. M. Kodach, J. Kalkman, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, "Quantitative comparison of the OCT imaging depth at 1300 nm and 1600 nm," Biomed. Opt. Exp. 1, 176-185 (2010).
  20. L. Xu, Monolithic integrated reflective transceiver in indium phosphide Ph.D. dissertation Technische Universiteit EindhovenEindhovenThe Netherlands (2009).
  21. M. K. Smit, R. Baets, M. Wale, "InP-based photonic integration: Learning from CMOS," 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Comm. ViennaAustria (2009).
  22. E. A. J. M. Bente, M. K. Smit, "Ultrafast InP optical integrated circuits," SPIE Proc. 6124 Optoelectron. Integr. Circuits VIII San JoseCA (2006).
  23. B. W. Tilma, M. S. Tahvili, J. Kotani, R. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, E. A. J. M. Bente, "Measurement and analysis of optical gain spectra in 1.6 to 1.8 $\mu$m InAs/InP (100) quantum-dot amplifiers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 41, 735-749 (2010).
  24. M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
  25. B. W. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, X. J. M. Leijtens, R. N. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, "Design of an integrated electro-optically tunable filter for tunable laser purposes," Proc. 14th Eur. Conf. Int. Opt. (2008) pp. 181-184.
  26. F. Fiedler, A. Schlachetski, "Optical parameters of InP-based waveguides," Solid-State Electron. 30, 73-83 (1987).
  27. J. P. Weber, "Optimization of the carrier-induced effective index change in InGaSP waveguides application to tunable Bragg filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1801-1816 (1994).
  28. H. Takahasi, I. Nishi, Y. Hibino, "10 GHz spacing optical frequency division multiplexer based on arrayed-waveguide grating," Electron. Lett. 28, 380-382 (1992).
  29. X. J. M. Leijtens, P. Le Lourec, M. K. Smit, "S-matrix oriented CAD-tool for simulating complex integrated optical circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 257-262 (1996).
  30. L. Xu, X. J. M. Leijtens, T. de Vries, Y. S. Oei, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, "Efficient deeply etched InP/InGaAsP phase shifters with low dark current," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Symp. Benelux Chapter 2007 (2007) pp. 115-118.
  31. J. J. M. Binsma, M. van Geemert, F. Heinrichsdorff, T. van Dongen, R. G. Broeke, M. K. Smit, "MOVPE waveguide regrowth in InGaAsP/InP with extremely low butt joint loss," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Symp. Benelux Chapter 2001 (2001) pp. 245-248.
  32. S. Anantathanasarn, R. Nötzel, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, Y. Barbarin, G. Servanton, T. de Vries, B. Smalbrugge, E. J. Geluk, T. J. Eijkemans, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, J. H. Wolter, "Lasing of wavelength-tunable (1.55 $\mu$m region) InAs/InGaAsP/InP (100) quantum dots grown by metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073116-1-073116-3 (2006).
  33. TUeDACS TU/e Data Acquisition & Control System—AWG100 (2009.) www.tuedacs.nl.
  34. R. G. Walker, "Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguides," Electron. Lett. 21, 581-583 (1985).
  35. J. H. den Besten, M. P. Dessens, C. G. P. Herben, X. J. M. Leijtens, F. H. Groen, M. R. Leys, M. K. Smit, "Low-loss. Compact, and polarization independent PHASAR demultiplexer fabricated by using a double-etch process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 62-64 (2002).

2010 (2)

V. M. Kodach, J. Kalkman, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, "Quantitative comparison of the OCT imaging depth at 1300 nm and 1600 nm," Biomed. Opt. Exp. 1, 176-185 (2010).

B. W. Tilma, M. S. Tahvili, J. Kotani, R. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, E. A. J. M. Bente, "Measurement and analysis of optical gain spectra in 1.6 to 1.8 $\mu$m InAs/InP (100) quantum-dot amplifiers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 41, 735-749 (2010).

2008 (2)

M. J. R. Heck, P. Munoz, B. W. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, "Design, fabrication and characterization of an InP-based tunable integrated optical pulse shaper," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 370-277 (2008).

T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, "InP-InGaAsP integrated 1$\,\times\,$5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1063-1065 (2008).

2006 (3)

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110–1-071110–3 (2006).

A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, "A review of MEMS external-cavity tunable lasers," J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, R1-R13 (2006).

S. Anantathanasarn, R. Nötzel, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, Y. Barbarin, G. Servanton, T. de Vries, B. Smalbrugge, E. J. Geluk, T. J. Eijkemans, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, J. H. Wolter, "Lasing of wavelength-tunable (1.55 $\mu$m region) InAs/InGaAsP/InP (100) quantum dots grown by metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073116-1-073116-3 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. J. Ward, D. J. Robbins, G. Busico, E. Barton, L. Ponnampalam, J. P. Duck, N. D. Whitbread, P. J. Williams, D. C. J. Reid, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, "Widely tunable DS-DBR laser width monolithically integrated SOA: Design and performance," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 149-156 (2005).

2004 (2)

E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, J. H. den Besten, M. K. Smit, J. J. M. Binsma, "Wavelength selection in an integrated multiwavelength ring laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1208-1216 (2004).

L. Zhang, J. Sinsky, D. van Thourhout, N. Sauer, L. Stulz, A. Adamiecki, S. Chandrasekhar, "Low-voltage high-speed travelling wave InGaAsP-InP phase modulator," IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1831-1833 (2004).

2003 (2)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography—Principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).

T. Zimmermann, J. Rietdorf, R. Pepperkok, "Spectral imaging and its applications in live cell microscopy," FEBS Lett. 546, 87-92 (2003).

2002 (2)

J. H. den Besten, R. G. Broeke, M. van Geemert, J. J. M. Binsma, F. Heinrichsdorff, T. van Dongen, E. A. J. M. Bente, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. K. Smit, "An integrated coupled-cavity 16-wavelength digitally tunable laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1653-1655 (2002) (with correction: vol. 15 p. 353, Feb. 2003).

J. H. den Besten, M. P. Dessens, C. G. P. Herben, X. J. M. Leijtens, F. H. Groen, M. R. Leys, M. K. Smit, "Low-loss. Compact, and polarization independent PHASAR demultiplexer fabricated by using a double-etch process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 62-64 (2002).

2000 (1)

L. A. Coldren, "Monolithic tunable diode lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 988-999 (2000).

1999 (1)

C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, "40-wavelength rapidly digitally tunable laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1348-1350 (1999).

1998 (1)

P. Werle, "A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors," Spectrochimica Acta A 54, 197-236 (1998).

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

1996 (2)

M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).

X. J. M. Leijtens, P. Le Lourec, M. K. Smit, "S-matrix oriented CAD-tool for simulating complex integrated optical circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 257-262 (1996).

1994 (1)

J. P. Weber, "Optimization of the carrier-induced effective index change in InGaSP waveguides application to tunable Bragg filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1801-1816 (1994).

1992 (2)

H. Takahasi, I. Nishi, Y. Hibino, "10 GHz spacing optical frequency division multiplexer based on arrayed-waveguide grating," Electron. Lett. 28, 380-382 (1992).

J.-F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavaillès, M. Erman, P. Jarry, M. Renaud, "InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: Theory and experiment," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 63-69 (1992).

1987 (1)

F. Fiedler, A. Schlachetski, "Optical parameters of InP-based waveguides," Solid-State Electron. 30, 73-83 (1987).

1985 (1)

R. G. Walker, "Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguides," Electron. Lett. 21, 581-583 (1985).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110–1-071110–3 (2006).

S. Anantathanasarn, R. Nötzel, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, Y. Barbarin, G. Servanton, T. de Vries, B. Smalbrugge, E. J. Geluk, T. J. Eijkemans, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, J. H. Wolter, "Lasing of wavelength-tunable (1.55 $\mu$m region) InAs/InGaAsP/InP (100) quantum dots grown by metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073116-1-073116-3 (2006).

Biomed. Opt. Exp. (1)

V. M. Kodach, J. Kalkman, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, "Quantitative comparison of the OCT imaging depth at 1300 nm and 1600 nm," Biomed. Opt. Exp. 1, 176-185 (2010).

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. Takahasi, I. Nishi, Y. Hibino, "10 GHz spacing optical frequency division multiplexer based on arrayed-waveguide grating," Electron. Lett. 28, 380-382 (1992).

R. G. Walker, "Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguides," Electron. Lett. 21, 581-583 (1985).

FEBS Lett. (1)

T. Zimmermann, J. Rietdorf, R. Pepperkok, "Spectral imaging and its applications in live cell microscopy," FEBS Lett. 546, 87-92 (2003).

IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Zhang, J. Sinsky, D. van Thourhout, N. Sauer, L. Stulz, A. Adamiecki, S. Chandrasekhar, "Low-voltage high-speed travelling wave InGaAsP-InP phase modulator," IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1831-1833 (2004).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

J. P. Weber, "Optimization of the carrier-induced effective index change in InGaSP waveguides application to tunable Bragg filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1801-1816 (1994).

M. J. R. Heck, P. Munoz, B. W. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, "Design, fabrication and characterization of an InP-based tunable integrated optical pulse shaper," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 370-277 (2008).

E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, J. H. den Besten, M. K. Smit, J. J. M. Binsma, "Wavelength selection in an integrated multiwavelength ring laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1208-1216 (2004).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (4)

A. J. Ward, D. J. Robbins, G. Busico, E. Barton, L. Ponnampalam, J. P. Duck, N. D. Whitbread, P. J. Williams, D. C. J. Reid, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, "Widely tunable DS-DBR laser width monolithically integrated SOA: Design and performance," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 149-156 (2005).

L. A. Coldren, "Monolithic tunable diode lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 988-999 (2000).

X. J. M. Leijtens, P. Le Lourec, M. K. Smit, "S-matrix oriented CAD-tool for simulating complex integrated optical circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 257-262 (1996).

M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, "InP-InGaAsP integrated 1$\,\times\,$5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1063-1065 (2008).

J. H. den Besten, R. G. Broeke, M. van Geemert, J. J. M. Binsma, F. Heinrichsdorff, T. van Dongen, E. A. J. M. Bente, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. K. Smit, "An integrated coupled-cavity 16-wavelength digitally tunable laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1653-1655 (2002) (with correction: vol. 15 p. 353, Feb. 2003).

C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, "40-wavelength rapidly digitally tunable laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1348-1350 (1999).

J. H. den Besten, M. P. Dessens, C. G. P. Herben, X. J. M. Leijtens, F. H. Groen, M. R. Leys, M. K. Smit, "Low-loss. Compact, and polarization independent PHASAR demultiplexer fabricated by using a double-etch process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 62-64 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

J.-F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavaillès, M. Erman, P. Jarry, M. Renaud, "InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: Theory and experiment," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 63-69 (1992).

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, "A review of MEMS external-cavity tunable lasers," J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, R1-R13 (2006).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. W. Tilma, M. S. Tahvili, J. Kotani, R. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, E. A. J. M. Bente, "Measurement and analysis of optical gain spectra in 1.6 to 1.8 $\mu$m InAs/InP (100) quantum-dot amplifiers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 41, 735-749 (2010).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography—Principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).

Solid-State Electron. (1)

F. Fiedler, A. Schlachetski, "Optical parameters of InP-based waveguides," Solid-State Electron. 30, 73-83 (1987).

Spectrochimica Acta A (1)

P. Werle, "A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors," Spectrochimica Acta A 54, 197-236 (1998).

Other (10)

D. H. P. Maat, F. H. Groen, R. C. Horsten, Y. C. Zhu, P. E. W. Kruis, C. G. P. Herben, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. K. Smit, "Tunable phased array demultiplexer on InP featuring wide-range tuning and pass-band shaping," 9th Eur. Conf. Integr. Opt. TorinoItaly (1999) Postdeadline Papers.

J. H. den Besten, Integration of multiwavelength lasers with fast electro-optical modulators Ph.D. dissertation Technische Universiteit EindhovenEindhovenThe Netherlands (2004).

H. Bukkems, New approaches to widely tunable semiconductor lasers Ph.D. dissertation Technische Universiteit EindhovenEindhovenThe Netherlands (2006).

TUeDACS TU/e Data Acquisition & Control System—AWG100 (2009.) www.tuedacs.nl.

L. Xu, X. J. M. Leijtens, T. de Vries, Y. S. Oei, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, "Efficient deeply etched InP/InGaAsP phase shifters with low dark current," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Symp. Benelux Chapter 2007 (2007) pp. 115-118.

J. J. M. Binsma, M. van Geemert, F. Heinrichsdorff, T. van Dongen, R. G. Broeke, M. K. Smit, "MOVPE waveguide regrowth in InGaAsP/InP with extremely low butt joint loss," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Symp. Benelux Chapter 2001 (2001) pp. 245-248.

B. W. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, X. J. M. Leijtens, R. N. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, "Design of an integrated electro-optically tunable filter for tunable laser purposes," Proc. 14th Eur. Conf. Int. Opt. (2008) pp. 181-184.

L. Xu, Monolithic integrated reflective transceiver in indium phosphide Ph.D. dissertation Technische Universiteit EindhovenEindhovenThe Netherlands (2009).

M. K. Smit, R. Baets, M. Wale, "InP-based photonic integration: Learning from CMOS," 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Comm. ViennaAustria (2009).

E. A. J. M. Bente, M. K. Smit, "Ultrafast InP optical integrated circuits," SPIE Proc. 6124 Optoelectron. Integr. Circuits VIII San JoseCA (2006).

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