Abstract

One of the most severe impairments that affect coherent optical systems employing high-order modulation formats is phase noise due to transmit and receive lasers. This is especially detrimental in uncompensated links, where an ideal compensator for channel distortions and laser phase noise should first eliminate receive phase noise, then equalize channel distortions, and only later compensate for transmit phase noise. Unfortunately, the simultaneous presence of transmit and receive phase noise makes very difficult to discriminate between them, even in the presence of a pilot tone. Moreover, the picture is different for optical systems using single-carrier or orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, where transmit and receive phase noise components may have a different impact. All these aspects are analyzed and discussed in this paper. A novel digital coherence enhancement (DCE) technique, able to significantly reduce the phase noise of transmit or receive lasers by using an interferometric device plus a very simple electronic processing, is also described. The performance of this technique and the statistical properties of the residual phase noise are analytically derived and verified by simulations, showing a high increase of the maximum bit-rate-distance product. The practical implementation of DCE is finally discussed and some alternative implementation schemes are presented.

© 2011 IEEE

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2011 (1)

T. Xu, G. Jacobsen, S. Popov, J. Li, A. T. Firber, Y. Zhang, "Analytical estimation of phase noise influence in coherent transmission system with digital dispersion equalization," Opt. Exp. 19, 7756-7768 (2011).

2010 (3)

A. P. T. Lau, T. S. R. Shen, W. Shieh, K.-P. Ho, "Equalization-enhanced phase noise for 100 Gb/s transmission and beyond with coherent detection," Opt. Exp. 18, 17 239-17 251 (2010).

A. Barbieri, G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "OFDM vs. single-carrier transmission for 100 Gbps optical communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2537-2551 (2010).

E. M. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Fiber impairment compensation using coherent detection and digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 502-519 (2010).

2009 (4)

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. No, "Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).

G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Robust multilevel coherent optical systems with linear processing at the receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2357-2369 (2009).

S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, H. Tanaka, "100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM," Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 407-413 (2009).

2008 (3)

W. Shieh, X. Yi, Q. Yang, "Coherent optical OFDM: Has its time come?," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 234-255 (2008).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

W. Shieh, K. P. Ho, "Equalization-enhanced phase noise for coherent detection systems using electronic digital signal processing," Opt. Exp. 16, 15 718-15 727 (2008).

2007 (1)

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2675-2692 (2007).

2006 (3)

D.-S. Ly Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Oherent detection of optical quadrature-phase-shift-keying signal with carrier phase estimation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 12-21 (2006).

L. G. Kazovsky, "Homodyne phase-shift-keying systems: Past challenges and future opportunities," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4876-4884 (2006).

G. Colavolpe, "On LDPC codes over channels with memory," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5, 1757-1766 (2006).

2005 (3)

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for 3- and 4-bit-per-symbol optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4110-4124 (2005).

G. Colavolpe, A. Barbieri, G. Caire, "Algorithms for iterative decoding in the presence of strong phase noise," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1748-1757 (2005).

R. Noè, "Phase noise-tolerant synchronous QPSK/BPSK baseband-type intradyne receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 802-808 (2005).

2001 (1)

E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Novel optical line codes tolerant to fiber chromatic dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1675-1684 (2001).

1999 (1)

G. Colavolpe, R. Raheli, "Noncoherent sequence detection," IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1376-1385 (1999).

1998 (2)

L. Tomba, "On the effect of Wiener phase noise in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 580-583 (1998).

N. McGinty, R. Kennedy, P. Hocher, "Parallel trellis viterbi algorithm for sparse channels," IEEE Commun. Lett. 2, 143-145 (1998).

1990 (1)

J. A. C. Bingham, "Multicarrier modulation for data transmission: An idea whose time has come," IEEE Commun. Mag. 5-14 (1990).

1975 (1)

P. Kabal, S. Pasupathy, "Partial-response signaling," IEEE Trans. Commun. 23, 921-934 (1975).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

N. McGinty, R. Kennedy, P. Hocher, "Parallel trellis viterbi algorithm for sparse channels," IEEE Commun. Lett. 2, 143-145 (1998).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. A. C. Bingham, "Multicarrier modulation for data transmission: An idea whose time has come," IEEE Commun. Mag. 5-14 (1990).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

G. Colavolpe, A. Barbieri, G. Caire, "Algorithms for iterative decoding in the presence of strong phase noise," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1748-1757 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (3)

G. Colavolpe, R. Raheli, "Noncoherent sequence detection," IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1376-1385 (1999).

P. Kabal, S. Pasupathy, "Partial-response signaling," IEEE Trans. Commun. 23, 921-934 (1975).

L. Tomba, "On the effect of Wiener phase noise in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 580-583 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (1)

G. Colavolpe, "On LDPC codes over channels with memory," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5, 1757-1766 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (12)

R. Noè, "Phase noise-tolerant synchronous QPSK/BPSK baseband-type intradyne receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 802-808 (2005).

D.-S. Ly Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Oherent detection of optical quadrature-phase-shift-keying signal with carrier phase estimation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 12-21 (2006).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2675-2692 (2007).

L. G. Kazovsky, "Homodyne phase-shift-keying systems: Past challenges and future opportunities," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4876-4884 (2006).

G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Robust multilevel coherent optical systems with linear processing at the receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2357-2369 (2009).

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).

A. Barbieri, G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "OFDM vs. single-carrier transmission for 100 Gbps optical communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2537-2551 (2010).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for 3- and 4-bit-per-symbol optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4110-4124 (2005).

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. No, "Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

E. M. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Fiber impairment compensation using coherent detection and digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 502-519 (2010).

E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Novel optical line codes tolerant to fiber chromatic dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1675-1684 (2001).

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Exp. (3)

W. Shieh, K. P. Ho, "Equalization-enhanced phase noise for coherent detection systems using electronic digital signal processing," Opt. Exp. 16, 15 718-15 727 (2008).

A. P. T. Lau, T. S. R. Shen, W. Shieh, K.-P. Ho, "Equalization-enhanced phase noise for 100 Gb/s transmission and beyond with coherent detection," Opt. Exp. 18, 17 239-17 251 (2010).

T. Xu, G. Jacobsen, S. Popov, J. Li, A. T. Firber, Y. Zhang, "Analytical estimation of phase noise influence in coherent transmission system with digital dispersion equalization," Opt. Exp. 19, 7756-7768 (2011).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, H. Tanaka, "100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM," Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 407-413 (2009).

Other (8)

G. Charlet, S. Bigo, J. Renaudier, O. B. Pardo, M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, "The impact and mitigation of non-linear effects in coherent optical transmission," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC'09) (2009).

U. Mengali, A. N. D'Andrea, Synchronization Techniques for Digital Receivers (Applications of Communications Theory) (Plenum Press, 1997).

G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, M. Secondini, "Phase noise sensitivity and compensation techniques in long-haul coherent optical links," Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. (2010).

G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, "100 Gb/s challenges and solutions," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC'08) (2008).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic Communications Systems (Wiley, 2002).

M. Secondini, G. Meloni, T. Foggi, G. Colavolpe, L. Poti, E. Forestieri, "Phase noise cancellation in coherent optical receivers by digital coherence enhancement," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC'10) (2010).

L. G. Kazowsky, S. Benedetto, A. Willner, Optical Fiber Communication Systems (Artec House, 1996).

S. Benedetto, E. Biglieri, V. Castellani, Digital Transmission Theory (Prentice-Hall, 1987).

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