Abstract

The vertical leakage characteristics are investigated for whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) in the microcylinder resonators with vertical semiconductor waveguiding. The mode coupling between HE and EH modes at the boundaries between the core and cladding layers results in a vertical leakage loss for the WGMs, if the transformed modes can propagate in the cladding layer. The core-layer-thickness-dependent vertical leakage loss caused by the internal interference is demonstrated and numerical simulated for the WGMs by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. An oscillation of mode <i>Q</i> factor is found with the increase of the thickness of core layer due to the internal interference between the transmitted and reflected leakage modes, and the vertical leakage loss can be canceled at some thicknesses of the core layer because of the destructive interference. Furthermore, the vertical leakage loss can also be controlled by the external interference in the microcylinder resonator with two vertical coupled core layers. The enhancements of <i>Q</i> factors for both symmetric and antisymmetric modes are observed by varying the gap between the two core layers.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. S. L. Mccall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, R. A. Logan, "Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
  2. M. Arzberger, G. Bohm, M. C. Amann, G. Abstreiter, "Continuous room-temperature operation of electrically pumped quantum-dot microcylinder lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1766-1768 (2001).
  3. G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, "Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710-1712 (2003).
  4. L. Prkna, M. Hubalek, J. Ctyroky, "Field modeling of circular microresonators by film mode matching," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 217-223 (2005).
  5. X. S. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, W. H. Guo, Q. Chen, M. Q. Wang, L. J. Yu, "Investigation of mode characteristics for microdisk resonators by S-matrix and three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain technique," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 1068-1073 (2006).
  6. V. N. Astratov, S. Yang, S. Lam, B. D. Jones, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, M. Hopkinson, "Whispering gallery resonances in semiconductor micropillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071115 (2007).
  7. Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, Q. Chen, "High-Q TM whispering-gallery modes in three-dimensional microcylinders," Phys. Rev. A 75, 013817 (2007).
  8. Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, "Mode coupling and vertical radiation loss for whispering-gallery modes in 3-D microcavities," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1411-1416 (2008).
  9. Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, W. H. Guo, Q. Y. Lu, J. F. Donegan, "Enhancement of quality factor for TE whispering-gallery modes in microcylinder resonators," Opt. Exp. 18, 13057-13062 (2010).
  10. Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time Domain Method (Artech House, 2005).
  11. B. J. Li, P. L. Liu, "Numerical analysis of the whispering gallery modes by the finite-difference time-domain method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1583-1587 (1996).
  12. T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, A. Mitchell, "Rigorous modeling of lateral leakage loss in SOI thin-ridge waveguides and couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 486-488 (2009).
  13. Q. Y. Lu, W. H. Guo, D. C. Byrne, J. F. Donegan, "Compact 2-D FDTD method combined with pad approximation transform for leaky mode analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1638-1645 (2010).
  14. D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nosrand Reinhold Company, 1982).
  15. W. H. Guo, W. J. Li, Y. Z. Huang, "Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Pade approximation," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 11, 223-225 (2001).
  16. Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, Q. Chen, "Comparison of Q-factors between TE and TM modes in 3-D microsquares by FDTD simulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1831-1833 (2007).

2010 (2)

Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, W. H. Guo, Q. Y. Lu, J. F. Donegan, "Enhancement of quality factor for TE whispering-gallery modes in microcylinder resonators," Opt. Exp. 18, 13057-13062 (2010).

Q. Y. Lu, W. H. Guo, D. C. Byrne, J. F. Donegan, "Compact 2-D FDTD method combined with pad approximation transform for leaky mode analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1638-1645 (2010).

2009 (1)

T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, A. Mitchell, "Rigorous modeling of lateral leakage loss in SOI thin-ridge waveguides and couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 486-488 (2009).

2008 (1)

Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, "Mode coupling and vertical radiation loss for whispering-gallery modes in 3-D microcavities," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1411-1416 (2008).

2007 (3)

V. N. Astratov, S. Yang, S. Lam, B. D. Jones, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, M. Hopkinson, "Whispering gallery resonances in semiconductor micropillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071115 (2007).

Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, Q. Chen, "High-Q TM whispering-gallery modes in three-dimensional microcylinders," Phys. Rev. A 75, 013817 (2007).

Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, Q. Chen, "Comparison of Q-factors between TE and TM modes in 3-D microsquares by FDTD simulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1831-1833 (2007).

2006 (1)

X. S. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, W. H. Guo, Q. Chen, M. Q. Wang, L. J. Yu, "Investigation of mode characteristics for microdisk resonators by S-matrix and three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain technique," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 1068-1073 (2006).

2005 (1)

L. Prkna, M. Hubalek, J. Ctyroky, "Field modeling of circular microresonators by film mode matching," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 217-223 (2005).

2003 (1)

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, "Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710-1712 (2003).

2001 (2)

M. Arzberger, G. Bohm, M. C. Amann, G. Abstreiter, "Continuous room-temperature operation of electrically pumped quantum-dot microcylinder lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1766-1768 (2001).

W. H. Guo, W. J. Li, Y. Z. Huang, "Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Pade approximation," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 11, 223-225 (2001).

1996 (1)

B. J. Li, P. L. Liu, "Numerical analysis of the whispering gallery modes by the finite-difference time-domain method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1583-1587 (1996).

1992 (1)

S. L. Mccall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, R. A. Logan, "Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. L. Mccall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, R. A. Logan, "Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).

M. Arzberger, G. Bohm, M. C. Amann, G. Abstreiter, "Continuous room-temperature operation of electrically pumped quantum-dot microcylinder lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1766-1768 (2001).

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, "Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710-1712 (2003).

V. N. Astratov, S. Yang, S. Lam, B. D. Jones, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, M. Hopkinson, "Whispering gallery resonances in semiconductor micropillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071115 (2007).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. J. Li, P. L. Liu, "Numerical analysis of the whispering gallery modes by the finite-difference time-domain method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1583-1587 (1996).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Prkna, M. Hubalek, J. Ctyroky, "Field modeling of circular microresonators by film mode matching," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 217-223 (2005).

IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. (1)

W. H. Guo, W. J. Li, Y. Z. Huang, "Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Pade approximation," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 11, 223-225 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, Q. Chen, "Comparison of Q-factors between TE and TM modes in 3-D microsquares by FDTD simulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1831-1833 (2007).

T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, A. Mitchell, "Rigorous modeling of lateral leakage loss in SOI thin-ridge waveguides and couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 486-488 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

Q. Y. Lu, W. H. Guo, D. C. Byrne, J. F. Donegan, "Compact 2-D FDTD method combined with pad approximation transform for leaky mode analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1638-1645 (2010).

Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, "Mode coupling and vertical radiation loss for whispering-gallery modes in 3-D microcavities," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1411-1416 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

X. S. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, W. H. Guo, Q. Chen, M. Q. Wang, L. J. Yu, "Investigation of mode characteristics for microdisk resonators by S-matrix and three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain technique," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 1068-1073 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (1)

Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, W. H. Guo, Q. Y. Lu, J. F. Donegan, "Enhancement of quality factor for TE whispering-gallery modes in microcylinder resonators," Opt. Exp. 18, 13057-13062 (2010).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, Q. Chen, "High-Q TM whispering-gallery modes in three-dimensional microcylinders," Phys. Rev. A 75, 013817 (2007).

Other (2)

Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time Domain Method (Artech House, 2005).

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nosrand Reinhold Company, 1982).

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