Abstract

We experimentally confirm that graphene within fiber laser cavities can generate four-wave-mixing (FWM) by observing the laser spectral broadening and the transition from the single-longitudinal-mode oscillation to multiple-longitudinal-mode one. Then, by simultaneously exploiting the graphene-induced nonlinear FWM and its super-broadband saturable absorption, we further achieve for the first time to the best of our knowledge, multiwavelength Q-switched Yb<sup>3+</sup>- or Er<sup>3+</sup>-doped fiber lasers at 1 <i>μ</i>m and 1.5 <i>μ</i>m wavebands, respectively. Simultaneous 23-wavelength Q-switching oscillation with a wavelength spacing of 0.2 nm is stably generated at 1.5 <i>μ</i>m waveband. The multiwavelength Q-switched pulses have the minimum pulse duration of 2.5 <i>μ</i>s, the maximum pulse energy of 72.5 nJ and a wide range of pulse-repetition-rate (PRR) from 2.8 to 63.0 kHz. At 1 <i>μ</i>m waveband, we also obtain five-wavelength simultaneous lasing in Q-switching regime with the pulse duration of ~3<i>μ</i>s, pulse energy of 10.3 nJ and PRR between 39.8 and 56.2kHz.

© 2011 IEEE

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H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, Y. W. Song, "Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021104 (2011).

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, "Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).

H. Yu, X. Chen, X. Hu, S. Zhuang, Z. Wang, X. Xu, J. Wang, H. Zhang, M. Jiang, "Graphene as a Q-switcher for neodymium-doped lutetium vanadate laser," Appl. Phys. Express 4, 022704 (2011).

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, Z. Cai, C. Ye, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, "Graphene-assisted multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 501-503 (2011).

2010 (11)

H. Karasawa, T. Komori, T. Watanabe, A. Satou, H. Fukidome, M. Suemitsu, V. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, "Observation of amplified stimulated terahertz emission from optically pumped heteroepitaxial graphene-on-silicon materials," J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves (2010) doi: 10.1007/s10762-010-9677-1.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, S. A. Mikhailov, "Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 97401 (2010).

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. Ferrari, "Graphene photonics and optoelectronics," Nat. Photon. 4, 611-622 (2010).

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, "Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing," Opt. Exp. 18, 23054-23061 (2010).

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, "Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, "Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser," Acs Nano 4, 803-810 (2010).

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, A. C. Ferrari, "A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser," Nano Res. 3, 653-660 (2010).

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, M. K. Bae, "Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, W. K. Liu, "Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9-11 (2010).

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, "Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene," Opt. Lett. 35, 3622-3624 (2010).

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, Z. Cai, "Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 35, 3709-3711 (2010).

2009 (5)

X. Xu, Y. Yao, X. Zhao, D. Chen, "Multiple four-wave-mixing processes and their application to multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2876-2885 (2009).

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, "Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene," Opt. Exp. 17, 17630-17635 (2009).

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, K. Loh, "Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, "Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics," Adv. Mater. 21, 3874-3899 (2009).

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, "Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers," Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077-3083 (2009).

2008 (2)

D. Li, M. B. Mller, S. Gilje, R. B. Kaner, G. G. Wallace, "Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets," Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 101-105 (2008).

R. Herda, S. Kivist, O. G. Okhotnikov, "Dynamic gain induced pulse shortening in Q-switched lasers," Opt. Let. 33, 1011-1013 (2008).

2006 (2)

Y. G. Han, T. V. A. Tran, S. B. Lee, "Wavelength-spacing tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave mixing of dispersion-shifted fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 697-699 (2006).

S. Pan, C. Lou, Y. Gao, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on inhomogeneous loss mechanism by use of a highly nonlinear fiber and a Fabry-Perot filter," Opt. Exp. 14, 1113-1118 (2006).

2005 (2)

Q. Wang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Feng, X. Liu, B. Zhou, "Inhomogeneous loss mechanism in multiwavelength fiber Raman ring lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 952-954 (2005).

X. M. Liu, C. Lu, "Self-stabilizing effect of four-wave mixing and its applications on multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2541-2543 (2005).

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

J. J. Zayhowski, P. L. Kelley, "Optimization of Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2220-2225 (1991).

Acs Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, "Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser," Acs Nano 4, 803-810 (2010).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, "Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers," Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077-3083 (2009).

Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, "Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics," Adv. Mater. 21, 3874-3899 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

H. Yu, X. Chen, X. Hu, S. Zhuang, Z. Wang, X. Xu, J. Wang, H. Zhang, M. Jiang, "Graphene as a Q-switcher for neodymium-doped lutetium vanadate laser," Appl. Phys. Express 4, 022704 (2011).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, M. K. Bae, "Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, Y. W. Song, "Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021104 (2011).

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, "Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, K. Loh, "Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, "Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. J. Zayhowski, P. L. Kelley, "Optimization of Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2220-2225 (1991).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, W. K. Liu, "Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9-11 (2010).

X. M. Liu, C. Lu, "Self-stabilizing effect of four-wave mixing and its applications on multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2541-2543 (2005).

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, Z. Cai, C. Ye, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, "Graphene-assisted multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 501-503 (2011).

J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves (1)

H. Karasawa, T. Komori, T. Watanabe, A. Satou, H. Fukidome, M. Suemitsu, V. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, "Observation of amplified stimulated terahertz emission from optically pumped heteroepitaxial graphene-on-silicon materials," J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves (2010) doi: 10.1007/s10762-010-9677-1.

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

X. Xu, Y. Yao, X. Zhao, D. Chen, "Multiple four-wave-mixing processes and their application to multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2876-2885 (2009).

Nano Res. (1)

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, A. C. Ferrari, "A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser," Nano Res. 3, 653-660 (2010).

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

D. Li, M. B. Mller, S. Gilje, R. B. Kaner, G. G. Wallace, "Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets," Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 101-105 (2008).

Nat. Photon. (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. Ferrari, "Graphene photonics and optoelectronics," Nat. Photon. 4, 611-622 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (3)

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, "Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing," Opt. Exp. 18, 23054-23061 (2010).

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, "Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene," Opt. Exp. 17, 17630-17635 (2009).

S. Pan, C. Lou, Y. Gao, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on inhomogeneous loss mechanism by use of a highly nonlinear fiber and a Fabry-Perot filter," Opt. Exp. 14, 1113-1118 (2006).

Opt. Let. (1)

R. Herda, S. Kivist, O. G. Okhotnikov, "Dynamic gain induced pulse shortening in Q-switched lasers," Opt. Let. 33, 1011-1013 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, S. A. Mikhailov, "Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 97401 (2010).

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