M. F. O. Hameed, S. S. A. Obayya, "Analysis of polarization rotator based on nematic
liquid crystal photonic crystal fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 806-815 (2010).

L. Wei, T. T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, "Compact design of an electrically tunable and
rotatable polarizer based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap
fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1633-1635 (2009).

L. Wei, L. Eskildsen, J. Weirich, L. Scolari, T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, "Continuously tunable all-in-fiber devices based on
thermal and electrical control of negative dielectric anisotropy
liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Appl. Opt. 48, 497-503 (2009).

G. Ren, P. Shum, X. Yu, J. Hu, G. Wang, Y. Gong, "Polarization dependent guiding in liquid crystal
filled photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1598-1606 (2008).

A. B. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, T. E. Murphy, "Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic
dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1423-1431 (2008).

T. R. Wolinski, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, J. Wojcik, "Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal
fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3061-3069 (2007).

T. T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal
photonic bandgap fiber polarimeter," Opt. Lett. 32, 1707-1709 (2007).

T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, J. Broeng, J. Li, S. Gauza, S. Wu, "Highly tunable large-core single-mode liquid-crystal
photonic bandgap fiber," Appl. Opt. 45, 2261-2264 (2006).

D. C. Zografopoulos, E. E. Kriezis, T. D. Tsiboukis, "Photonic crystal-liquid crystal fibers for
single-polarization or high-birefringence
guidance," Opt. Exp. 14, 914-925 (2006).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, "Accurate finite element modal solution of photonic
crystal fibres. Optoelectronics," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 241-246 (2005).

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, "Selective filling of photonic crystal
fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13-L20 (2005).

J. Li, S. T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid
crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073501-073501-5 (2005).

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, Y. L. Hoo, C. Zhao, "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured
optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Exp. 13, 9014-9022 (2005).

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a
liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).

L. Scolari, T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, M. Nielsen, P. Bassi, "Continuously tunable devices based on electrical
control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap
fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 7483-7496 (2005).

T. R. Woliñski, K. Szaniawska, K. Bondarczuk, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domañski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-kruszelnicki2, J. Wójcik, "Propagation properties of photonic crystal fibers
filled with nematic liquid crystals," Opto-Electron. Rev. 13, 177-182 (2005).

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, "Fabrication of functional microstructured optical
fibers through a selective-filling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182-5184 (2004).

S. Campbell, R. C. McPhedran, C. Martijn de Sterke, L. C. Botten, "Differential multipole method for microstructured
optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 21, 1919-1928 (2004).

S. S. A. Obayya, N. Somasiri, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, "Full vectorial finite element modeling of novel
polarization rotators," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 297-312 (2003).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Full vectorial finite-element-based imaginary distance
beam propagation solution of complex modes in optical
waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1054-1060 (2002).

B. M. A. Rahman, S. S. A. Obayya, N. Somasiri, M. Rajarajan, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Design and characterisation of compact single-section
passive polarization rotator," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 512-519 (2001).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Improved design of a polarization converter based on
semiconductor optical waveguide bends," Appl. Opt. 40, 5395-5401 (2001).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahmann, H. A. El-Mikati, "Vector beam propagation analysis of polarization
conversion in periodically loaded waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1346-1348 (2000).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, H. A. El Mikati, "New full vectorial numerically efficient propagation
algorithm based on the finite element method," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 409-415 (2000).

I. Morita, K. Tanka, N. Edagawa, M. Suzuki, "40 Gb/s single-channel soliton transmission over
transoceanic distances by reducing Gordon-Haus timing jitter and
soliton-soliton interaction," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2506-2511 (1999).

W. C. Chew, J. M. Jin, E. Michielssen, "Complex coordinate stretching as a generalized
absorbing boundary condition," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 15, 363-369 (1997).

F. Heismann, R. W. Smith, "High-speed polarization scrambler with adjustable
phase chirp," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 311-318 (1996).

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, "Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by
a full-vector beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2639-2649 (1993).

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, "Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded
rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278-1280 (1991).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Improved design of a polarization converter based on
semiconductor optical waveguide bends," Appl. Opt. 40, 5395-5401 (2001).

T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, J. Broeng, J. Li, S. Gauza, S. Wu, "Highly tunable large-core single-mode liquid-crystal
photonic bandgap fiber," Appl. Opt. 45, 2261-2264 (2006).

L. Wei, L. Eskildsen, J. Weirich, L. Scolari, T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, "Continuously tunable all-in-fiber devices based on
thermal and electrical control of negative dielectric anisotropy
liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Appl. Opt. 48, 497-503 (2009).

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, "Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded
rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278-1280 (1991).

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, "Fabrication of functional microstructured optical
fibers through a selective-filling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182-5184 (2004).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, "Accurate finite element modal solution of photonic
crystal fibres. Optoelectronics," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 241-246 (2005).

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, "Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by
a full-vector beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2639-2649 (1993).

F. Heismann, R. W. Smith, "High-speed polarization scrambler with adjustable
phase chirp," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 311-318 (1996).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahmann, H. A. El-Mikati, "Vector beam propagation analysis of polarization
conversion in periodically loaded waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1346-1348 (2000).

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a
liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).

L. Wei, T. T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, "Compact design of an electrically tunable and
rotatable polarizer based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap
fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1633-1635 (2009).

J. Li, S. T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid
crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073501-073501-5 (2005).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Full vectorial finite-element-based imaginary distance
beam propagation solution of complex modes in optical
waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1054-1060 (2002).

A. B. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, T. E. Murphy, "Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic
dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1423-1431 (2008).

I. Morita, K. Tanka, N. Edagawa, M. Suzuki, "40 Gb/s single-channel soliton transmission over
transoceanic distances by reducing Gordon-Haus timing jitter and
soliton-soliton interaction," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2506-2511 (1999).

B. M. A. Rahman, S. S. A. Obayya, N. Somasiri, M. Rajarajan, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Design and characterisation of compact single-section
passive polarization rotator," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 512-519 (2001).

M. F. O. Hameed, S. S. A. Obayya, "Analysis of polarization rotator based on nematic
liquid crystal photonic crystal fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 806-815 (2010).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, H. A. El Mikati, "New full vectorial numerically efficient propagation
algorithm based on the finite element method," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 409-415 (2000).

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, "Selective filling of photonic crystal
fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13-L20 (2005).

S. Campbell, R. C. McPhedran, C. Martijn de Sterke, L. C. Botten, "Differential multipole method for microstructured
optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 21, 1919-1928 (2004).

T. R. Wolinski, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, J. Wojcik, "Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal
fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3061-3069 (2007).

W. C. Chew, J. M. Jin, E. Michielssen, "Complex coordinate stretching as a generalized
absorbing boundary condition," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 15, 363-369 (1997).

G. Ren, P. Shum, X. Yu, J. Hu, G. Wang, Y. Gong, "Polarization dependent guiding in liquid crystal
filled photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1598-1606 (2008).

D. C. Zografopoulos, E. E. Kriezis, T. D. Tsiboukis, "Photonic crystal-liquid crystal fibers for
single-polarization or high-birefringence
guidance," Opt. Exp. 14, 914-925 (2006).

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, Y. L. Hoo, C. Zhao, "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured
optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Exp. 13, 9014-9022 (2005).

L. Scolari, T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, M. Nielsen, P. Bassi, "Continuously tunable devices based on electrical
control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap
fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 7483-7496 (2005).

S. S. A. Obayya, N. Somasiri, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, "Full vectorial finite element modeling of novel
polarization rotators," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 297-312 (2003).

T. R. Woliñski, K. Szaniawska, K. Bondarczuk, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domañski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-kruszelnicki2, J. Wójcik, "Propagation properties of photonic crystal fibers
filled with nematic liquid crystals," Opto-Electron. Rev. 13, 177-182 (2005).

M. J. Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication and
Nanotechnology (CRC Press, 2011).

J. Y. Y. Leong, Fabrication and Applications of Lead-Silicate Glass Holey
Fibre for 1–1.5 microns: Nonlinearity and Dispersion Trade
Offs Ph.D. dissertation Faculty of engineering, science and mathematics
Optoelectronics research centre University of SouthamptonU.K.Southampton (2007).