Abstract

We have UV-inscribed and theoretically and experimentally analyzed fiber gratings with the structure tilted at 45° and implemented this type of devices as an in-fiber polarizer. A systematic investigation has been carried out on the characterization of 45° tilted fiber gratings (45° TFGs) in terms of the polarization-dependant loss (PDL) and thermal response. The detailed theoretical modeling has revealed a linear correlation between the grating length and the PDL, which has been proved by the experimental results. For the first time, we have examined the UV beam diffraction from a tilted phase mask and designed the UV-inscription system to suit the 45° TFG fabrication. Experimentally, a 24 mm long 45° TFG UV-inscribed in standard telecom single-mode fiber exhibited around 25 dB PDL at 1530 nm and an over ~300 nm bandwidth of PDL spectrum. By the concatenation method, a 44 mm long grating showed a PDL as high as 40 dB that is close to the high polarization extinction ratio of commercial products. Moreover, we have revealed that the PDL of 45° TFGs has low thermal influence, which is desirable for real application devices. Finally, we experimentally demonstrated an all-fiber twist sensor system based on a 45° and an 81° TFG.

© 2011 IEEE

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2010 (4)

Y.-C. Lu, W.-P. Huang, S.-S. Jia, "Full vector complex coupled mode theory for tilted fiber gratings," Opt. Exp. 18, 713-726 (2010).

C. Mou, H. Wang, B. G. Bale, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "All-fiber passively mode-locked femtosecond laser using a 45°-tilted fiber grating polarization element," Opt. Exp. 18, 18906-18911 (2010).

C. A. Lu, G. T. Moore, "Magnetic quasi-phase matching all-fiber isolator," Adv. Optoelectron. 2010, (2010) Art. 179813 .

Y.-C. Lu, R. Geng, C. Wang, F. Zhang, C. Liu, T. Ning, S. Jian, "Polarization effects in tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1677-1684 (2010).

2009 (3)

C. Mou, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Characterization of 45°-tilted fiber grating and its polarization function in fiber ring laser," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1905-1911 (2009).

S. Lu, O. Xu, S. Feng, S. Jian, "Analysis of radiation-mode coupling in reflective and transmissive tilted fiber Bragg gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 26, 91-98 (2009).

R. Suo, X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "In-fiber directional transverse loading sensor based on excessively tilted fiber Bragg gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, (2009) Art. 034015.

2006 (4)

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "In-fiber twist sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating with 81 tilted structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2596-2598 (2006).

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Optic sensors of high refractive-index responsivity and low thermal cross sensitivity that use fiber Bragg gratings of $>80^{\circ}$ tilted structures," Opt. Lett. 31, 1193-1195 (2006).

Y. Li, T. G. Brown, "Radiation modes and tilted fiber gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 1544-1555 (2006).

K. Zhou, L. Zhang, X. Chen, I. Bennion, "Low thermal sensitivity grating devices based on Ex-45° tilting structure capable of forward-propagating cladding modes coupling," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 5087-5094 (2006).

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

P. I. D. C. Reyes, P. S. Westbrook, "Tunable PDL of twisted-tilted fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 828-830 (2003).

2002 (2)

S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, X. Dai, C. Smelser, L. Chen, "UV-Induced polarization-dependant loss(PDL) in tilted fiber Bragg grating: Application of a PDL equalizer," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 211-216 (2002).

S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, T. J. Stocki, D. C. Johnson, "Fabrication of tilted fiber-grating polarization-dependent loss equaliser," Electron. Lett. 37, 284-286 (2002).

2001 (1)

Y. Li, M. Froggatt, T. Erdogan, "Volume current method for analysis of tilted fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1580-1591 (2001).

2000 (1)

P. S. Westbrook, T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, "In-line polarimeter using blazed fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1352-1354 (2000).

1996 (1)

T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Tilted fiber phase gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 13, 296-313 (1996).

1993 (2)

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, A. White, "Production of in-fiber gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566-567 (1993).

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, "Bragging gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

1980 (2)

R. A. Bergh, H. J. Shaw, "All-single-mode fiber-optic gyroscope with long-term stability," Opt. Lett. 6, 502-504 (1980).

W. Eickhoff, "In-line fiber-optic polarizer," Electron. Lett. 16, 762-764 (1980).

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647-649 (1978).

Adv. Optoelectron. (1)

C. A. Lu, G. T. Moore, "Magnetic quasi-phase matching all-fiber isolator," Adv. Optoelectron. 2010, (2010) Art. 179813 .

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647-649 (1978).

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, "Bragging gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).

Electron. Lett. (3)

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, A. White, "Production of in-fiber gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566-567 (1993).

W. Eickhoff, "In-line fiber-optic polarizer," Electron. Lett. 16, 762-764 (1980).

S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, T. J. Stocki, D. C. Johnson, "Fabrication of tilted fiber-grating polarization-dependent loss equaliser," Electron. Lett. 37, 284-286 (2002).

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, X. Dai, C. Smelser, L. Chen, "UV-Induced polarization-dependant loss(PDL) in tilted fiber Bragg grating: Application of a PDL equalizer," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 211-216 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

P. S. Westbrook, T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, "In-line polarimeter using blazed fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1352-1354 (2000).

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "In-fiber twist sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating with 81 tilted structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2596-2598 (2006).

P. I. D. C. Reyes, P. S. Westbrook, "Tunable PDL of twisted-tilted fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 828-830 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

Y.-C. Lu, R. Geng, C. Wang, F. Zhang, C. Liu, T. Ning, S. Jian, "Polarization effects in tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1677-1684 (2010).

Y. Li, M. Froggatt, T. Erdogan, "Volume current method for analysis of tilted fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1580-1591 (2001).

K. Zhou, L. Zhang, X. Chen, I. Bennion, "Low thermal sensitivity grating devices based on Ex-45° tilting structure capable of forward-propagating cladding modes coupling," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 5087-5094 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (2)

S. Lu, O. Xu, S. Feng, S. Jian, "Analysis of radiation-mode coupling in reflective and transmissive tilted fiber Bragg gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 26, 91-98 (2009).

T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Tilted fiber phase gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 13, 296-313 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (2)

Y. Li, T. G. Brown, "Radiation modes and tilted fiber gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 1544-1555 (2006).

C. Mou, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Characterization of 45°-tilted fiber grating and its polarization function in fiber ring laser," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1905-1911 (2009).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. Suo, X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "In-fiber directional transverse loading sensor based on excessively tilted fiber Bragg gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, (2009) Art. 034015.

Opt. Exp. (2)

C. Mou, H. Wang, B. G. Bale, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "All-fiber passively mode-locked femtosecond laser using a 45°-tilted fiber grating polarization element," Opt. Exp. 18, 18906-18911 (2010).

Y.-C. Lu, W.-P. Huang, S.-S. Jia, "Full vector complex coupled mode theory for tilted fiber gratings," Opt. Exp. 18, 713-726 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (3)

C. Mou, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Thermal insensitive optical liquid level sensor based on excessively tilted fiber Bragg grating," Proc. Opt. Fiber. Commun. Optoelectron. Expo. Conf. (2008) pp. 1-3.

M. J. Adamst, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides (Wiley, 1981) pp. 11-15.

Polarization Dependent Loss Measurement of Passive Optical Components Application Note Agilent TechnologiesSanta ClaraCA (2001)5988-1232EN.

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