Abstract

One of the main goals of photonic integration is to combine different components that are capable of executing different functions. One of these functions is the generation of light: in this sense, photonic wire lasers may become a key component in future generations of integrated circuits because of their small footprints. Another is the generation of high-intensity electric fields that can be used to excite nonlinear effects, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering, or to visualize nano-objects, in small regions and can be achieved by using plasmonic nanoantennas. In this paper, the combination of photonic wire lasers and plasmonic nanoantennas is examined. We show that a very compact photonic wire nanoantenna laser, which generates a high-intensity electric field inside the nanoantenna, can be produced.

© 2011 IEEE

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  3. D. S. Song, S. H. Kim, H. G. Park, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Single-fundamental-mode photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3608-3610 (2003).
  4. H. T. Hattori, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, J. L. Leclercq, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. di Cioccio, L. El Melhaoui, J. M. Fedeli, "Coupling analysis of heterogeneous integrated InP based photonic crystal triangular lattice band-edge lasers and silicon waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 3310-3322 (2005).
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  28. A. Alu, N. Engheta, "Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
  29. W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, M. Brongersma, "Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides," Adv. Mater. 22, 5120-5124 (2010).
  30. H. T. Hattori, "Modal analysis of one-dimensional nonuniform arrays of square resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1873-1881 (2005).
  31. L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995).
  32. S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, C. H. Chen, K. Nozaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, "20-Gbit/s directly modulated photonic crystal nanocavity laser with ultra-low power consumption," Opt. Exp. 19, 2242-2250 (2011).
  33. B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, J. Buckovic, "Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic crystal nanocavity laser," Nature Photon. 5, 297-300 (2011).
  34. D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, J. Vuckovic, "Ultrafast photonic crystal lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 264-274 (2008).
  35. H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
  36. H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, M. K. Seo, Y. G. Ju, S. B. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of electrically driven two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1131-1141 (2005).
  37. G. Veronis, W. Suh, Y. Liu, M. Han, Z. Wang, R. W. Dutton, S. Fan, "Coupled optical and electronic simulations of electrically pumped photonic-crystal-based light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044503 (2005).
  38. M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oel, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. V. Veldhoven, F. W. M. V. Otten, T. J. Eljkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. D. Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, M. K. Smit, "Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities," Nature Photon. 1, 589-594 (2007).

2011 (2)

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, C. H. Chen, K. Nozaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, "20-Gbit/s directly modulated photonic crystal nanocavity laser with ultra-low power consumption," Opt. Exp. 19, 2242-2250 (2011).

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, J. Buckovic, "Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic crystal nanocavity laser," Nature Photon. 5, 297-300 (2011).

2010 (1)

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, M. Brongersma, "Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides," Adv. Mater. 22, 5120-5124 (2010).

2009 (3)

J. Wen, S. Romanov, U. Peschel, "Excitation of plasmonic gap waveguides by nanoantennas," Opt. Exp. 17, 5925-5932 (2009).

H. T. Hattori, Z. Li, D. Liu, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, "Coupling of light from microdisk lasers into plasmonic nano-antennas," Opt. Exp. 17, 20878-20884 (2009).

A. R. Zain, N. P. Johnson, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, "High quality-factor 1-D-suspended photonic crystal/photonic wire silicon waveguide micro-cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1789-1791 (2009).

2008 (6)

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, F. Capasso, "Quantum cascade lasers with integrated plasmonic antenna-array collimators," Opt. Exp. 16, 19447-19461 (2008).

H. Fischer, O. J. F. Martin, "Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas," Opt. Exp. 16, 9144-9154 (2008).

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, J. Vuckovic, "Ultrafast photonic crystal lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 264-274 (2008).

V. S. Amaratunga, H. T. Hattori, M. Premaratne, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, "Photonic crystal phase detector," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1532-1536 (2008).

H. T. Hattori, "Analysis of optically pumped equilateral triangular microlasers with three mode-selective trenches," Appl. Opt. 47, 2178-2185 (2008).

A. Alu, N. Engheta, "Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).

2007 (3)

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oel, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. V. Veldhoven, F. W. M. V. Otten, T. J. Eljkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. D. Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, M. K. Smit, "Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities," Nature Photon. 1, 589-594 (2007).

C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, "Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173113 (2007).

2006 (1)

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. D. Sewell, A. I. Nosich, "Directional emission, increased free spectral range, and mode Q-factors in 2-D wavelength-scale optical microcavity structures," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1175-1182 (2006).

2005 (10)

A. Boltasseva, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. Sondergaard, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, "Compact Z-add-drop wavelength filters for long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Exp. 13, 4237-4243 (2005).

H. T. Hattori, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, J. L. Leclercq, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. di Cioccio, L. El Melhaoui, J. M. Fedeli, "Coupling analysis of heterogeneous integrated InP based photonic crystal triangular lattice band-edge lasers and silicon waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 3310-3322 (2005).

H. T. Hattori, V. M. Schneider, R. M. Cazo, C. L. Barbosa, "Analysis of strategies to improve the directionality of square lattice band-edge photonic crystal structures," Appl. Opt. 44, 3069-3076 (2005).

R. M. Cazo, C. L. Barbosa, H. T. Hattori, V. M. Schneider, "Steady-state analysis of a directional square lattice band-edge photonic crystal laser," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 210-214 (2005).

H. T. Hattori, D. Y. Liu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, "Large square resonator laser with quasi-single-mode operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 359-361 (2005).

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. I. Nosich, "Spectral shift and Q-change of circular and square-shaped optical microcavity modes due to periodic sidewall surface roughness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1792-1796 (2005).

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, A. Alu, "Circuits elements at optical frequencies: Nanoinductors, nanocapacitors, and nanoresistors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 095504 (2005).

H. T. Hattori, "Modal analysis of one-dimensional nonuniform arrays of square resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1873-1881 (2005).

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, M. K. Seo, Y. G. Ju, S. B. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of electrically driven two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1131-1141 (2005).

G. Veronis, W. Suh, Y. Liu, M. Han, Z. Wang, R. W. Dutton, S. Fan, "Coupled optical and electronic simulations of electrically pumped photonic-crystal-based light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044503 (2005).

2004 (3)

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).

D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, M. Imada, S. Noda, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of a surface-emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal diode laser," Opt. Exp. 12, 1562-1568 (2004).

T. Matsumoto, T. Baba, "Photonic crystal k-vector super-prism," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 917-922 (2004).

2003 (2)

D. S. Song, S. H. Kim, H. G. Park, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Single-fundamental-mode photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3608-3610 (2003).

H. Kuwata, H. Tamaru, K. Esumi, K. Miyano, "Resonant light scattering from metal nanoparticles: Practical analysis beyond Rayleigh approximation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4625 (2003).

2002 (1)

H. G. Park, J. K. Hwang, J. Huh, H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of modified single-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353-1365 (2002).

1999 (2)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherrer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus, "Two-dimensional photonic bandgap defect mode laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, T. Baba, "Ultra-small and ultra-low threshold microdisk injection laser- design, fabrication, lasing characteristics and spontaneous emission factor," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 673-681 (1999).

1997 (1)

S. Ando, N. Kobayashi, H. Ando, "Triangular-facet lasers coupled by a rectangular optical waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L76-L78 (1997).

1993 (1)

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, R. A. Logan, "Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 562-563 (1993).

Adv. Mater. (1)

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, M. Brongersma, "Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides," Adv. Mater. 22, 5120-5124 (2010).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, R. A. Logan, "Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 562-563 (1993).

D. S. Song, S. H. Kim, H. G. Park, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Single-fundamental-mode photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3608-3610 (2003).

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, "Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173113 (2007).

H. Kuwata, H. Tamaru, K. Esumi, K. Miyano, "Resonant light scattering from metal nanoparticles: Practical analysis beyond Rayleigh approximation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4625 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, M. K. Seo, Y. G. Ju, S. B. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of electrically driven two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1131-1141 (2005).

H. G. Park, J. K. Hwang, J. Huh, H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of modified single-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353-1365 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, T. Baba, "Ultra-small and ultra-low threshold microdisk injection laser- design, fabrication, lasing characteristics and spontaneous emission factor," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 673-681 (1999).

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. D. Sewell, A. I. Nosich, "Directional emission, increased free spectral range, and mode Q-factors in 2-D wavelength-scale optical microcavity structures," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1175-1182 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. T. Hattori, D. Y. Liu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, "Large square resonator laser with quasi-single-mode operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 359-361 (2005).

A. R. Zain, N. P. Johnson, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, "High quality-factor 1-D-suspended photonic crystal/photonic wire silicon waveguide micro-cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1789-1791 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Veronis, W. Suh, Y. Liu, M. Han, Z. Wang, R. W. Dutton, S. Fan, "Coupled optical and electronic simulations of electrically pumped photonic-crystal-based light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044503 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. Matsumoto, T. Baba, "Photonic crystal k-vector super-prism," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 917-922 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

V. S. Amaratunga, H. T. Hattori, M. Premaratne, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, "Photonic crystal phase detector," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1532-1536 (2008).

H. T. Hattori, "Modal analysis of one-dimensional nonuniform arrays of square resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1873-1881 (2005).

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. I. Nosich, "Spectral shift and Q-change of circular and square-shaped optical microcavity modes due to periodic sidewall surface roughness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1792-1796 (2005).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Ando, N. Kobayashi, H. Ando, "Triangular-facet lasers coupled by a rectangular optical waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L76-L78 (1997).

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, J. Vuckovic, "Ultrafast photonic crystal lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 264-274 (2008).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. M. Cazo, C. L. Barbosa, H. T. Hattori, V. M. Schneider, "Steady-state analysis of a directional square lattice band-edge photonic crystal laser," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 210-214 (2005).

Nature (1)

C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).

Nature Photon. (2)

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oel, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. V. Veldhoven, F. W. M. V. Otten, T. J. Eljkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. D. Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, M. K. Smit, "Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities," Nature Photon. 1, 589-594 (2007).

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, J. Buckovic, "Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic crystal nanocavity laser," Nature Photon. 5, 297-300 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (8)

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, C. H. Chen, K. Nozaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, "20-Gbit/s directly modulated photonic crystal nanocavity laser with ultra-low power consumption," Opt. Exp. 19, 2242-2250 (2011).

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, F. Capasso, "Quantum cascade lasers with integrated plasmonic antenna-array collimators," Opt. Exp. 16, 19447-19461 (2008).

H. Fischer, O. J. F. Martin, "Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas," Opt. Exp. 16, 9144-9154 (2008).

J. Wen, S. Romanov, U. Peschel, "Excitation of plasmonic gap waveguides by nanoantennas," Opt. Exp. 17, 5925-5932 (2009).

A. Boltasseva, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. Sondergaard, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, "Compact Z-add-drop wavelength filters for long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Exp. 13, 4237-4243 (2005).

H. T. Hattori, Z. Li, D. Liu, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, "Coupling of light from microdisk lasers into plasmonic nano-antennas," Opt. Exp. 17, 20878-20884 (2009).

D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, M. Imada, S. Noda, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of a surface-emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal diode laser," Opt. Exp. 12, 1562-1568 (2004).

H. T. Hattori, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, J. L. Leclercq, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. di Cioccio, L. El Melhaoui, J. M. Fedeli, "Coupling analysis of heterogeneous integrated InP based photonic crystal triangular lattice band-edge lasers and silicon waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 3310-3322 (2005).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, A. Alu, "Circuits elements at optical frequencies: Nanoinductors, nanocapacitors, and nanoresistors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 095504 (2005).

A. Alu, N. Engheta, "Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).

Science (2)

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherrer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus, "Two-dimensional photonic bandgap defect mode laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).

Other (2)

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995).

Fullwave 4.0 RSOFT Design Group (1999) http://www.rsoftdesign.com.

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