Abstract

Longitudinal 2 x 2 thermo-optic switches based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic circuitry are thoroughly studied using vectorial numerical tools, i.e., an eigenmode solver and a beam propagation method, implemented with the finite-element technique. The switching configurations studied are based on the Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and a novel multimode interference (MMI) design. Both components offer improved performance, with respect to comparable microring-based ones, exhibiting larger bandwidth and output port extinction ratio, allowing values up to 30 dB. The reference MZI configuration has better overall performance when compared to the MMI, mainly in terms of available bandwidth.

© 2011 IEEE

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2011 (4)

S. Papaioannou, C. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. Kriezis, N. Pleros, "A 320 Gb/s-throughput capable 2$\,\times\,$2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects," J. Lightw. Technol. (2011) to be published.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. Kwong, "Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 525-527 (2011).

O. Tsilipakos, E. E. Kriezis, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Thermo-optic microring resonator switching elements made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 109, (2011) art. 073111.

O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, A. C. Tasolamprou, T. V. Yioultsis, E. E. Kriezis, "Computational techniques for the analysis and design of dielectric-loaded plasmonic circuitry," Opt. Quantum Electron. 1-15 (2011) DOI 10.1007/s11082-011-9440-4.

2010 (6)

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, "Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) art. 063105.

M. Wu, Z. Han, V. Van, "Conductor-gap-silicon plasmonic waveguides and passive components at subwavelength scale," Opt. Exp. 18, 11728-11736 (2010).

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, H. A. Atwater, "Computational techniques for the analysis and design of dielectric-loaded plasmonic circuitry," Nano Lett. 10, 4851-4857 (2010).

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, "Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components," Opt. Exp. 18, 1207-1216 (2010).

D. K. Gramotnev, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit," Nat. Photon. 4, 83-91 (2010).

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, H. A. Atwater, "Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies," Nano Lett. 10, 2111-2116 (2010).

2009 (6)

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, N. I. Zheludev, "Ultrafast active plasmonics," Nat. Photon. 3, 55-58 (2009).

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, "PlasMOStor: A metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator," Nano Lett. 9, 897-902 (2009).

T. Han, S. Madden, M. Zhang, R. Charters, B. Luther-Davies, "Low loss high index contrast nanoimprinted polysiloxane waveguides," Opt. Exp. 17, 2623-2630 (2009).

O. Tsilipakos, T. V. Yioultsis, E. E. Kriezis, "Theoretical analysis of thermally tunable microring resonator filters made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 106, (2009) art. 093109.

G. Yuan, P. Wang, Y. Lu, H. Ming, "Multimode interference splitter based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Opt. Exp. 17, 12594-12600 (2009).

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, "Design and characterization of dielectric-loaded plasmonic directional couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5521-5528 (2009).

2008 (5)

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI," Opt. Exp. 16, 15304-15311 (2008).

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, X. Zhang, "A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation," Nat. Photon. 2, 496-500 (2008).

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface-plasmon circuitry," Phys. Today 61, 44-50 (2008).

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, M. L. Brongersma, "A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules," Nano Lett. 8, 1506-1510 (2008).

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, A. V. Zayats, "Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal," Nano Lett. 8, 281-286 (2008).

2007 (2)

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 75, (2007) art. 245405.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, "All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots," Nat. Photon. 1, 402-406 (2007).

2006 (6)

S. W. Liu, M. Xiao, "Electro-optic switch in ferroelectric thin films mediated by surface plasmons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) art. 143512.

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, M. L. Brongersma, "Plasmonics: The next chip-scale technology," Mater. Today 9, 20-27 (2006).

G. Gagnon, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Thermally activated variable attenuation of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waves," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4391-4402 (2006).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Si photonic wire waveguide devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1371-1378 (2006).

2005 (1)

S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 1-10 (2005).

2004 (3)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5835 (2004).

A. V. Krasavin, N. I. Zheludev, "Active plasmonics: Controlling signals in Au/Ga waveguide using nanoscale structural transformations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1416-1418 (2004).

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, M. L. Brongersma, "Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 21, 2442-2446 (2004).

2001 (2)

S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, A. Cucinotta, M. Zoboli, "Complex FEM modal solver of optical waveguides with PML boundary conditions," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 359-371 (2001).

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method with perfectly matched layers for anisotropic optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 405-413 (2001).

1998 (1)

D. Schulz, C. Glingener, M. Bludszuweit, E. Voges, "Mixed finite element beam propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1336-1341 (1998).

1992 (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5835 (2004).

A. V. Krasavin, N. I. Zheludev, "Active plasmonics: Controlling signals in Au/Ga waveguide using nanoscale structural transformations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1416-1418 (2004).

S. W. Liu, M. Xiao, "Electro-optic switch in ferroelectric thin films mediated by surface plasmons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) art. 143512.

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, "Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) art. 063105.

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Si photonic wire waveguide devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1371-1378 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. Kwong, "Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 525-527 (2011).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

O. Tsilipakos, T. V. Yioultsis, E. E. Kriezis, "Theoretical analysis of thermally tunable microring resonator filters made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 106, (2009) art. 093109.

O. Tsilipakos, E. E. Kriezis, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Thermo-optic microring resonator switching elements made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 109, (2011) art. 073111.

S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 1-10 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

G. Gagnon, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Thermally activated variable attenuation of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waves," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4391-4402 (2006).

S. Papaioannou, C. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. Kriezis, N. Pleros, "A 320 Gb/s-throughput capable 2$\,\times\,$2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects," J. Lightw. Technol. (2011) to be published.

D. Schulz, C. Glingener, M. Bludszuweit, E. Voges, "Mixed finite element beam propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1336-1341 (1998).

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method with perfectly matched layers for anisotropic optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 405-413 (2001).

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, "Design and characterization of dielectric-loaded plasmonic directional couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5521-5528 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, M. L. Brongersma, "Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 21, 2442-2446 (2004).

Mater. Today (1)

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, M. L. Brongersma, "Plasmonics: The next chip-scale technology," Mater. Today 9, 20-27 (2006).

Nano Lett. (5)

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, M. L. Brongersma, "A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules," Nano Lett. 8, 1506-1510 (2008).

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, A. V. Zayats, "Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal," Nano Lett. 8, 281-286 (2008).

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, "PlasMOStor: A metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator," Nano Lett. 9, 897-902 (2009).

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, H. A. Atwater, "Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies," Nano Lett. 10, 2111-2116 (2010).

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, H. A. Atwater, "Computational techniques for the analysis and design of dielectric-loaded plasmonic circuitry," Nano Lett. 10, 4851-4857 (2010).

Nat. Photon. (4)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, X. Zhang, "A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation," Nat. Photon. 2, 496-500 (2008).

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, "All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots," Nat. Photon. 1, 402-406 (2007).

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, N. I. Zheludev, "Ultrafast active plasmonics," Nat. Photon. 3, 55-58 (2009).

D. K. Gramotnev, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit," Nat. Photon. 4, 83-91 (2010).

Nature (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (5)

M. Wu, Z. Han, V. Van, "Conductor-gap-silicon plasmonic waveguides and passive components at subwavelength scale," Opt. Exp. 18, 11728-11736 (2010).

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, "Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components," Opt. Exp. 18, 1207-1216 (2010).

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI," Opt. Exp. 16, 15304-15311 (2008).

T. Han, S. Madden, M. Zhang, R. Charters, B. Luther-Davies, "Low loss high index contrast nanoimprinted polysiloxane waveguides," Opt. Exp. 17, 2623-2630 (2009).

G. Yuan, P. Wang, Y. Lu, H. Ming, "Multimode interference splitter based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Opt. Exp. 17, 12594-12600 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, A. C. Tasolamprou, T. V. Yioultsis, E. E. Kriezis, "Computational techniques for the analysis and design of dielectric-loaded plasmonic circuitry," Opt. Quantum Electron. 1-15 (2011) DOI 10.1007/s11082-011-9440-4.

S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, A. Cucinotta, M. Zoboli, "Complex FEM modal solver of optical waveguides with PML boundary conditions," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 359-371 (2001).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 75, (2007) art. 245405.

Phys. Today (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface-plasmon circuitry," Phys. Today 61, 44-50 (2008).

Science (1)

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).

Other (4)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

N. Pleros, K. Vyrsokinos, S. Papaioannou, D. Fitsios, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, A. Miliou, T. Tekin, M. Baus, M. Karl, D. Kalavrouziotis, I. Giannoulis, H. Avramopoulos, N. Djellali, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Gosciniac, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Tb/s switching fabrics for optical interconnects using heterointegration of plasmonics and silicon photonics: The FP7 PLATON approach," Proc. 23rd Annu. Meet. IEEE Photon. Soc. (2010) pp. 165-166.

J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics (Wiley, 2002).

Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic., 1985).

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