Abstract

In this paper, we propose a parallel QoS scheduler for a WDM optical interconnection system (WOPIS), using a new ranked Hopfield neural-network (RHNN). The WOPIS contains a set of Clos-like optical switches and a handful of output FDL-based optical buffers. The RHNN scheduler determines an optimal set of neurons (I/O paths) to be enabled, achieving maximal system throughput and priority differentiation subject to the switch- and buffer-contention-free constraints. Structured with ranked neurons, the RHNN allows higher-rank neurons (higher-priority and/or lower-delay paths) to disable lower-rank neurons that have been enabled during previous iterations. Ranking the neurons unfortunately gives rise to a convergence problem. We present two theorems that give the sufficient conditions for the RHNN scheduler to converge to the optimal solution. We demonstrate via simulation results that, with the computation time within one system slot time, the RHNN scheduler achieves near 100% throughput and multi-level prioritized scheduling.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. A. K. Kodi, A. Louri, "Multidimensional and reconfigurable optical interconnects for high-performance computing (HPC) systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4634-4641 (2009).
  2. Z. Zhang, Y. Yang, "WDM optical interconnects with recirculating buffering and limited range wavelength conversion," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 17, 466-480 (2006).
  3. M. Yuang, Y. Lin, J. Shih, J. J. Chen, P. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S. Lin, "A QoS optical packet switching system: Architectural design and experimental demonstration," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 66-75 (2010).
  4. S. Liew, G. Hu, H. Chao, "Scheduling algorithms for shared fiber-delay-line optical packet switches—Part II: The three-stage CLOS-network case," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1601-1609 (2005).
  5. B. Sarker, T. Yoshino, S. Majumder, "All-optical wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation (XPM) in a single-mode fiber and a Mach–Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 340-342 (2002).
  6. G. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, A. Pomportsis, "Optical switching: Switch fabrics, techniques, and architectures," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 384-405 (2003).
  7. K. A. Williams, G. F. Roberts, T. Lin, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Glick, D. McAuley, "Integrated optical 2$\,\times\,$2 switch for wavelength multiplexed interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 78-85 (2005).
  8. T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. A. Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, "InP-InGaAsP integrated 1$\,\times\,$5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1063-1065 (2008).
  9. A. Jajszczyk, "Nonblocking, repackable, and rearrangable clos networks: Fifty years of the theory evolution," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 28-33 (2003).
  10. C. Lin, C. S. Lee, Neural Fuzzy Systems A Neuro-Fuzzy Synergism to Intelligent Systems (Prentice-Hall, 1996).
  11. X. Gao, L. Liao, "A novel neural network for a class of convex quadratic minimax problems," Neural Computing 18, 1818-1846 (2006).
  12. X. Hu, J. Wang, "A recurrent neural network for solving a class of general variational inequalities," IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. B, Cybern. 37, 528-539 (2007).
  13. Q. Liu, J. Wang, "A one-layer recurrent neural network with a discontinuous hard-limiting activation function for quadratic programming," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 19, 558-570 (2008).
  14. X. Hu, B. Zhang, "A new recurrent neural network for solving convex quadratic programming problems with an application to the k-winners-take-all problem," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 20, 654-664 (2009).
  15. Y. Li, Z. Tang, G. Xia, R. Wang, "A positively self-feedbacked hopfield neural network architecture for crossbar switching," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 52, 200-206 (2005).
  16. X. Hu, J. Wang, "An improved dual neural network for solving a class of quadratic programming problems and its K-winners-take-all application," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 19, 2022-2031 (2008).
  17. T. P. Troudet, S. M. Walters, "Neural network architecture for crossbar switch control," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 38, 42-56 (1991).
  18. K. Symington, A. Waddie, M. Taghizadeh, J. Snowdon, "A neural-network packet switch controller: Scalability, performance, and network optimization," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 14, 28-34 (2003).
  19. M. Chia, D. Hunter, I. Andonovic, P. Ball, I. Wright, S. Ferguson, K. Guild, M. O'Mahony, "Packet loss and delay performance of feedback and feed-forward arrayed-waveguide gratings-based optical packet switches with WDM inputs-outputs," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1241-1254 (2001).

2010 (1)

M. Yuang, Y. Lin, J. Shih, J. J. Chen, P. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S. Lin, "A QoS optical packet switching system: Architectural design and experimental demonstration," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 66-75 (2010).

2009 (2)

A. K. Kodi, A. Louri, "Multidimensional and reconfigurable optical interconnects for high-performance computing (HPC) systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4634-4641 (2009).

X. Hu, B. Zhang, "A new recurrent neural network for solving convex quadratic programming problems with an application to the k-winners-take-all problem," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 20, 654-664 (2009).

2008 (3)

X. Hu, J. Wang, "An improved dual neural network for solving a class of quadratic programming problems and its K-winners-take-all application," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 19, 2022-2031 (2008).

T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. A. Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, "InP-InGaAsP integrated 1$\,\times\,$5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1063-1065 (2008).

Q. Liu, J. Wang, "A one-layer recurrent neural network with a discontinuous hard-limiting activation function for quadratic programming," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 19, 558-570 (2008).

2007 (1)

X. Hu, J. Wang, "A recurrent neural network for solving a class of general variational inequalities," IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. B, Cybern. 37, 528-539 (2007).

2006 (2)

X. Gao, L. Liao, "A novel neural network for a class of convex quadratic minimax problems," Neural Computing 18, 1818-1846 (2006).

Z. Zhang, Y. Yang, "WDM optical interconnects with recirculating buffering and limited range wavelength conversion," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 17, 466-480 (2006).

2005 (3)

S. Liew, G. Hu, H. Chao, "Scheduling algorithms for shared fiber-delay-line optical packet switches—Part II: The three-stage CLOS-network case," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1601-1609 (2005).

K. A. Williams, G. F. Roberts, T. Lin, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Glick, D. McAuley, "Integrated optical 2$\,\times\,$2 switch for wavelength multiplexed interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 78-85 (2005).

Y. Li, Z. Tang, G. Xia, R. Wang, "A positively self-feedbacked hopfield neural network architecture for crossbar switching," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 52, 200-206 (2005).

2003 (3)

K. Symington, A. Waddie, M. Taghizadeh, J. Snowdon, "A neural-network packet switch controller: Scalability, performance, and network optimization," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 14, 28-34 (2003).

G. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, A. Pomportsis, "Optical switching: Switch fabrics, techniques, and architectures," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 384-405 (2003).

A. Jajszczyk, "Nonblocking, repackable, and rearrangable clos networks: Fifty years of the theory evolution," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 28-33 (2003).

2002 (1)

B. Sarker, T. Yoshino, S. Majumder, "All-optical wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation (XPM) in a single-mode fiber and a Mach–Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 340-342 (2002).

2001 (1)

M. Chia, D. Hunter, I. Andonovic, P. Ball, I. Wright, S. Ferguson, K. Guild, M. O'Mahony, "Packet loss and delay performance of feedback and feed-forward arrayed-waveguide gratings-based optical packet switches with WDM inputs-outputs," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1241-1254 (2001).

1991 (1)

T. P. Troudet, S. M. Walters, "Neural network architecture for crossbar switch control," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 38, 42-56 (1991).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

M. Yuang, Y. Lin, J. Shih, J. J. Chen, P. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S. Lin, "A QoS optical packet switching system: Architectural design and experimental demonstration," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 66-75 (2010).

A. Jajszczyk, "Nonblocking, repackable, and rearrangable clos networks: Fifty years of the theory evolution," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 28-33 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

K. A. Williams, G. F. Roberts, T. Lin, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Glick, D. McAuley, "Integrated optical 2$\,\times\,$2 switch for wavelength multiplexed interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 78-85 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. A. Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, "InP-InGaAsP integrated 1$\,\times\,$5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1063-1065 (2008).

B. Sarker, T. Yoshino, S. Majumder, "All-optical wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation (XPM) in a single-mode fiber and a Mach–Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 340-342 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. (2)

Y. Li, Z. Tang, G. Xia, R. Wang, "A positively self-feedbacked hopfield neural network architecture for crossbar switching," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 52, 200-206 (2005).

T. P. Troudet, S. M. Walters, "Neural network architecture for crossbar switch control," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 38, 42-56 (1991).

IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. (4)

K. Symington, A. Waddie, M. Taghizadeh, J. Snowdon, "A neural-network packet switch controller: Scalability, performance, and network optimization," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 14, 28-34 (2003).

X. Hu, J. Wang, "An improved dual neural network for solving a class of quadratic programming problems and its K-winners-take-all application," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 19, 2022-2031 (2008).

Q. Liu, J. Wang, "A one-layer recurrent neural network with a discontinuous hard-limiting activation function for quadratic programming," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 19, 558-570 (2008).

X. Hu, B. Zhang, "A new recurrent neural network for solving convex quadratic programming problems with an application to the k-winners-take-all problem," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 20, 654-664 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. (1)

Z. Zhang, Y. Yang, "WDM optical interconnects with recirculating buffering and limited range wavelength conversion," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 17, 466-480 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. B, Cybern. (1)

X. Hu, J. Wang, "A recurrent neural network for solving a class of general variational inequalities," IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. B, Cybern. 37, 528-539 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

A. K. Kodi, A. Louri, "Multidimensional and reconfigurable optical interconnects for high-performance computing (HPC) systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4634-4641 (2009).

S. Liew, G. Hu, H. Chao, "Scheduling algorithms for shared fiber-delay-line optical packet switches—Part II: The three-stage CLOS-network case," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1601-1609 (2005).

G. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, A. Pomportsis, "Optical switching: Switch fabrics, techniques, and architectures," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 384-405 (2003).

M. Chia, D. Hunter, I. Andonovic, P. Ball, I. Wright, S. Ferguson, K. Guild, M. O'Mahony, "Packet loss and delay performance of feedback and feed-forward arrayed-waveguide gratings-based optical packet switches with WDM inputs-outputs," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1241-1254 (2001).

Neural Computing (1)

X. Gao, L. Liao, "A novel neural network for a class of convex quadratic minimax problems," Neural Computing 18, 1818-1846 (2006).

Other (1)

C. Lin, C. S. Lee, Neural Fuzzy Systems A Neuro-Fuzzy Synergism to Intelligent Systems (Prentice-Hall, 1996).

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