Abstract

In this paper, the structural dependence of factor which mainly affects a bending loss property is theoretically investigated in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers (PBGFs). A design principle for realizing low bending losses is successfully figured out for the first-order photonic bandgap (PBG). In particular, one of the origins which causes the variation of bending loss property for each structural parameter is identified. In addition, we show that exploitation of a large pitch relative to a rod diameter, aiming to realize a large-mode area (LMA) structure, leads to a significant degradation of the bending loss property. Moreover, it is demonstrated that a V-value which is proposed for all-solid PBGFs is also reduced significantly for the LMA condition. The origin of the degradation is attributed to the newly-excited Bloch state which determines the second-order PBG edge.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. J. C. Knight, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, T. A. Birks, D. M. Bird, "Solid photonic bandgap fibres and applications," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6059-6063 (2006).
  2. F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "All-solid photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 2369-2371 (2004).
  3. A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent," Opt. Express 13, 309-314 (2005).
  4. A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, P. St. J. Russell, "Guidance properties of low-contrast photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 13, 2503-2511 (2005).
  5. G. Bouwmans, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, F. Lopez, L. Provino, M. Douay, "Fabrication and characterization of an all-solid 2-D photonic bandgap fiber with a low-loss region (${<}20$ dB/km) around 1550 nm," Opt. Exp. 13, 8452-8459 (2005).
  6. A. Wang, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, "Three-level neodymium fiber laser incorporating photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1388-1390 (2006).
  7. J. M. Stone, G. J. Pearce, F. Luan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, A. K. George, D. M. Bird, "An improved photonic bandgap fiber based on an array of rings," Opt. Exp. 14, 6291-6296 (2006).
  8. A. Bétourné, V. Pureur, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, L. Bigot, M. Perrin, M. Douay, "Solid photonic bandgap fiber assisted by an extra air-clad structure for low-loss operation around 1.5 $\mu$m," Opt. Exp. 15, 316-324 (2007).
  9. G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, X. Yu, W. Tong, J. Luo, "Low-loss all-solid photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 32, 1023-1025 (2007).
  10. A. Bétourné, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Perrin, M. Douay, "Improvements of solid-core photonic bandgap fibers by means of interstitial air holes," Opt. Lett. 32, 1719-1721 (2007).
  11. V. Pureur, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Douay, Y. Jaouen, "Ytterbium-doped solid core photonic bandgap fiber for laser operation around 980 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061113 (2008).
  12. C. B. Olausson, C. I. Falk, J. K. Lyngs, B. B. Jensen, K. T. Therkildsen, J. W. Thomsen, K. P. Hansen, A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, "Amplification and ASE suppression in a polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped all-solid photonic bandgap fibre," Opt. Exp. 16, 13657-13662 (2008).
  13. A. Shirakawa, H. Maruyama, K. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngs, J. Broeng, "High-power Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1150–1200 nm," Opt. Exp. 17, 447-454 (2009).
  14. V. Pureur, J. C. Knight, B. T. Kuhlmey, "Higher order guided mode propagation in solid-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 18, 8906-8915 (2010).
  15. J. Lægsgaard, "Gap formation and guided modes in photonic bandgap fibres with high-index rods," J. Opt. A 6, 798-804 (2004).
  16. N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 11, 1243-1251 (2003).
  17. T. Murao, K. Saitoh, T. Taru, T. Nagashima, K. Maeda, T. Sasaki, M. Koshiba, "Bend-insensitive and effectively single-moded all-solid photonic bandgap fibers with heterostructured cladding," Proc. ECOC (2009).
  18. T. Murao, K. Saitoh, K. Nagao, M. Koshiba, "Design principle for low bending losses in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers," Proc. CLEO/QELS (2010).
  19. T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Multiple resonant coupling mechanism for suppression of higher-order modes in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers with heterostructured cladding," Opt. Exp. 19, 1713-1727 (2011).
  20. T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Detailed theoretical investigation of bending properties in solid-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 17, 7615-7629 (2009).
  21. T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, J. C. Knight, D. M. Bird, "Bend loss in all-solid bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 14, 5688-5698 (2006).
  22. T. A. Birks, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, "Approximate band structure calculation for photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 14, 9483-9490 (2006).
  23. T. Murao, K. Nagao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Understanding formation of photonic bandgap edge for maximum propagation angle in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 28, 453-461 (2011).
  24. O. N. Egorova, S. L. Semjonov, A. F. Kosolapov, A. N. Denisov, A. D. Pryamikov, D. A. Gaponov, A. S. Biriukov, E. M. Dianov, M. Y. Salganskii, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Gurianov, D. V. Kuksenkov, "Single-mode all-silica photonic bandgap fiber with 20- $\mu$m mode field diameter," Opt. Exp. 16, 11735-11740 (2008).
  25. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).
  26. M. Perrin, Y. Quiquempois, G. Bouwmans, M. Douay, "Coexistence of total internal reflection and bandgap modes in solid core photonic bandgap fibre with interstitial air holes," Opt. Exp. 15, 13783-13795 (2007).
  27. M. J. F. Digonnet, H. K. Kim, G. S. Kino, S. Fan, "Understanding air-core photonic-bandgap fibers: Analogy to conventional fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4169-4177 (2005).
  28. Y. Li, C. Wang, T. A. Birks, D. M. Bird, "Effective index method for all-solid photonic bandgap fibres," J. Opt. A 9, 858-861 (2007).
  29. Y. Li, D. M. Bird, T. A. Birks, "Bend loss in all-solid bandgap fibers revisited," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1368-1372 (2010).
  30. K. Kakihara, N. Kono, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial finite element method in a cylindrical coordinate system for loss analysis of photonic wire bends," Opt. Exp. 14, 11128-11141 (2006).
  31. M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, "Applicability of classical optical fiber theories to holey fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1739-1741 (2004).
  32. K. Saitoh, T. Murao, L. Rosa, M. Koshiba, "Effective area limit of large-mode-area solid-core photonic bandgap fibers for fiber laser applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 409-418 (2010).

2011 (2)

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Multiple resonant coupling mechanism for suppression of higher-order modes in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers with heterostructured cladding," Opt. Exp. 19, 1713-1727 (2011).

T. Murao, K. Nagao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Understanding formation of photonic bandgap edge for maximum propagation angle in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 28, 453-461 (2011).

2010 (3)

Y. Li, D. M. Bird, T. A. Birks, "Bend loss in all-solid bandgap fibers revisited," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1368-1372 (2010).

K. Saitoh, T. Murao, L. Rosa, M. Koshiba, "Effective area limit of large-mode-area solid-core photonic bandgap fibers for fiber laser applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 409-418 (2010).

V. Pureur, J. C. Knight, B. T. Kuhlmey, "Higher order guided mode propagation in solid-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 18, 8906-8915 (2010).

2009 (2)

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Detailed theoretical investigation of bending properties in solid-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 17, 7615-7629 (2009).

A. Shirakawa, H. Maruyama, K. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngs, J. Broeng, "High-power Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1150–1200 nm," Opt. Exp. 17, 447-454 (2009).

2008 (3)

O. N. Egorova, S. L. Semjonov, A. F. Kosolapov, A. N. Denisov, A. D. Pryamikov, D. A. Gaponov, A. S. Biriukov, E. M. Dianov, M. Y. Salganskii, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Gurianov, D. V. Kuksenkov, "Single-mode all-silica photonic bandgap fiber with 20- $\mu$m mode field diameter," Opt. Exp. 16, 11735-11740 (2008).

V. Pureur, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Douay, Y. Jaouen, "Ytterbium-doped solid core photonic bandgap fiber for laser operation around 980 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061113 (2008).

C. B. Olausson, C. I. Falk, J. K. Lyngs, B. B. Jensen, K. T. Therkildsen, J. W. Thomsen, K. P. Hansen, A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, "Amplification and ASE suppression in a polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped all-solid photonic bandgap fibre," Opt. Exp. 16, 13657-13662 (2008).

2007 (5)

A. Bétourné, V. Pureur, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, L. Bigot, M. Perrin, M. Douay, "Solid photonic bandgap fiber assisted by an extra air-clad structure for low-loss operation around 1.5 $\mu$m," Opt. Exp. 15, 316-324 (2007).

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, X. Yu, W. Tong, J. Luo, "Low-loss all-solid photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 32, 1023-1025 (2007).

A. Bétourné, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Perrin, M. Douay, "Improvements of solid-core photonic bandgap fibers by means of interstitial air holes," Opt. Lett. 32, 1719-1721 (2007).

M. Perrin, Y. Quiquempois, G. Bouwmans, M. Douay, "Coexistence of total internal reflection and bandgap modes in solid core photonic bandgap fibre with interstitial air holes," Opt. Exp. 15, 13783-13795 (2007).

Y. Li, C. Wang, T. A. Birks, D. M. Bird, "Effective index method for all-solid photonic bandgap fibres," J. Opt. A 9, 858-861 (2007).

2006 (6)

K. Kakihara, N. Kono, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial finite element method in a cylindrical coordinate system for loss analysis of photonic wire bends," Opt. Exp. 14, 11128-11141 (2006).

A. Wang, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, "Three-level neodymium fiber laser incorporating photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1388-1390 (2006).

J. M. Stone, G. J. Pearce, F. Luan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, A. K. George, D. M. Bird, "An improved photonic bandgap fiber based on an array of rings," Opt. Exp. 14, 6291-6296 (2006).

J. C. Knight, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, T. A. Birks, D. M. Bird, "Solid photonic bandgap fibres and applications," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6059-6063 (2006).

T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, J. C. Knight, D. M. Bird, "Bend loss in all-solid bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 14, 5688-5698 (2006).

T. A. Birks, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, "Approximate band structure calculation for photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 14, 9483-9490 (2006).

2005 (4)

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent," Opt. Express 13, 309-314 (2005).

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, P. St. J. Russell, "Guidance properties of low-contrast photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 13, 2503-2511 (2005).

G. Bouwmans, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, F. Lopez, L. Provino, M. Douay, "Fabrication and characterization of an all-solid 2-D photonic bandgap fiber with a low-loss region (${<}20$ dB/km) around 1550 nm," Opt. Exp. 13, 8452-8459 (2005).

M. J. F. Digonnet, H. K. Kim, G. S. Kino, S. Fan, "Understanding air-core photonic-bandgap fibers: Analogy to conventional fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4169-4177 (2005).

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 11, 1243-1251 (2003).

2002 (1)

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Pureur, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Douay, Y. Jaouen, "Ytterbium-doped solid core photonic bandgap fiber for laser operation around 980 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061113 (2008).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

M. J. F. Digonnet, H. K. Kim, G. S. Kino, S. Fan, "Understanding air-core photonic-bandgap fibers: Analogy to conventional fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4169-4177 (2005).

Y. Li, D. M. Bird, T. A. Birks, "Bend loss in all-solid bandgap fibers revisited," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1368-1372 (2010).

J. Opt. A (2)

Y. Li, C. Wang, T. A. Birks, D. M. Bird, "Effective index method for all-solid photonic bandgap fibres," J. Opt. A 9, 858-861 (2007).

J. Lægsgaard, "Gap formation and guided modes in photonic bandgap fibres with high-index rods," J. Opt. A 6, 798-804 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

T. Murao, K. Nagao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Understanding formation of photonic bandgap edge for maximum propagation angle in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 28, 453-461 (2011).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. C. Knight, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, T. A. Birks, D. M. Bird, "Solid photonic bandgap fibres and applications," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6059-6063 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (15)

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, P. St. J. Russell, "Guidance properties of low-contrast photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 13, 2503-2511 (2005).

G. Bouwmans, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, F. Lopez, L. Provino, M. Douay, "Fabrication and characterization of an all-solid 2-D photonic bandgap fiber with a low-loss region (${<}20$ dB/km) around 1550 nm," Opt. Exp. 13, 8452-8459 (2005).

J. M. Stone, G. J. Pearce, F. Luan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, A. K. George, D. M. Bird, "An improved photonic bandgap fiber based on an array of rings," Opt. Exp. 14, 6291-6296 (2006).

A. Bétourné, V. Pureur, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, L. Bigot, M. Perrin, M. Douay, "Solid photonic bandgap fiber assisted by an extra air-clad structure for low-loss operation around 1.5 $\mu$m," Opt. Exp. 15, 316-324 (2007).

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 11, 1243-1251 (2003).

C. B. Olausson, C. I. Falk, J. K. Lyngs, B. B. Jensen, K. T. Therkildsen, J. W. Thomsen, K. P. Hansen, A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, "Amplification and ASE suppression in a polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped all-solid photonic bandgap fibre," Opt. Exp. 16, 13657-13662 (2008).

A. Shirakawa, H. Maruyama, K. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngs, J. Broeng, "High-power Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1150–1200 nm," Opt. Exp. 17, 447-454 (2009).

V. Pureur, J. C. Knight, B. T. Kuhlmey, "Higher order guided mode propagation in solid-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 18, 8906-8915 (2010).

O. N. Egorova, S. L. Semjonov, A. F. Kosolapov, A. N. Denisov, A. D. Pryamikov, D. A. Gaponov, A. S. Biriukov, E. M. Dianov, M. Y. Salganskii, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Gurianov, D. V. Kuksenkov, "Single-mode all-silica photonic bandgap fiber with 20- $\mu$m mode field diameter," Opt. Exp. 16, 11735-11740 (2008).

M. Perrin, Y. Quiquempois, G. Bouwmans, M. Douay, "Coexistence of total internal reflection and bandgap modes in solid core photonic bandgap fibre with interstitial air holes," Opt. Exp. 15, 13783-13795 (2007).

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Multiple resonant coupling mechanism for suppression of higher-order modes in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers with heterostructured cladding," Opt. Exp. 19, 1713-1727 (2011).

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Detailed theoretical investigation of bending properties in solid-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 17, 7615-7629 (2009).

T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, J. C. Knight, D. M. Bird, "Bend loss in all-solid bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 14, 5688-5698 (2006).

T. A. Birks, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, "Approximate band structure calculation for photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 14, 9483-9490 (2006).

K. Kakihara, N. Kono, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial finite element method in a cylindrical coordinate system for loss analysis of photonic wire bends," Opt. Exp. 14, 11128-11141 (2006).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

K. Saitoh, T. Murao, L. Rosa, M. Koshiba, "Effective area limit of large-mode-area solid-core photonic bandgap fibers for fiber laser applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 409-418 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (2)

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, T. Taru, T. Nagashima, K. Maeda, T. Sasaki, M. Koshiba, "Bend-insensitive and effectively single-moded all-solid photonic bandgap fibers with heterostructured cladding," Proc. ECOC (2009).

T. Murao, K. Saitoh, K. Nagao, M. Koshiba, "Design principle for low bending losses in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers," Proc. CLEO/QELS (2010).

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