Abstract

In high-capacity metro networks, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) offer a potentially cost-effective solution for compensation of chromatic dispersion (CD). However, FBGs suffer from stochastic variations of their group delay, the so-called group delay ripple (GDR). We propose a novel statistical model to describe the effects of stochastic variations of GDR. The statistical properties of our model are verified by comparison to measurement data and Monte Carlo simulations as well as Multicanonical Monte Carlo (MMC) simulations. Results indicate that without further measures to counteract the GDR distortions, very large penalties ( >10 dB) for the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) occur frequently at a bitrate of 112 Gbit/s. Thus, we investigated the performance of short and cost-effective optical finite and infinite impulse response equalizer structures to mitigate the GDR distortions and to enhance the signal quality. With the use of optical equalizers (which can be realized as planar lightwave circuits) we were able to reduce the mean OSNR penalty due to the GDR to less than 0.1dB. We also demonstrate that the same filter structures can efficiently be used to mitigate all-order PMD distortions as well.

© 2011 IEEE

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References

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  1. R. Tkach, "Network traffic and system capacity: Scaling for the future," Proc. ECOC (2010).
  2. R. Tkach, "Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond," Bell Labs Tech. J. 14, 3-9 (2010).
  3. S. J. Savory, "Electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Exp. 15, 2120-2125 (2007).
  4. S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).
  5. I. Kaminov, Optical Fiber and Telecommunications IV B (Academic, 2002) pp. 658-695.
  6. M. Bohn, C. Xia, "Electrical and optical equalization strategies in direct detected high-speed transmission systems," Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEU) 63, 526-532 (2009).
  7. J. Mietzner, S. Otte, "Optimal equalization of distortions due to group delay ripples of chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBG)," Intern. J. of Electronics and Communications 56, 187-192 (2002).
  8. A. Dochhan, G. Göger, S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, W. Rosenkranz, "The influence of FBG phase ripple distortions—Comparison for different modulation formats," Proc. OFC (2008).
  9. M. Westhäuser, C. Remmersmann, S. Pachnicke, B. Johansson, P. M. Krummrich, "Reducing fiber Bragg-Grating induced group delay ripples in 112 Gbit/s metro networks using generically initialized transversal filters," ITG-Fachtagung für Photonische Netze (2010).
  10. M. Westhäuser, C. Remmersmann, S. Pachnicke, B. Johansson, P. M. Krummrich, "Optimization of optical equalization of group delay ripple-induced penalties from fiber Bragg gratings in 112 Gbit/s metro networks," Proc. Opt. Photon. Congress “Advanced Photonics” (2010).
  11. L. T. Lima, G. Biodini, B. S. Marks, W. L. Kath, C. R. Menyuk, "Analysis of PMD compensators with fixed DGD using importance sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 627-629 (2002).
  12. C. R. Menyuk, "Statistical errors in biasing Monte Carlo simulations with applications to polarization-mode dispersion compensators," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4184-4196 (2006).
  13. B. Berg, T. Neuhaus, "Multicanonical ensemble: A new approach to simulate first-order phase transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 9-12 (1992).
  14. D. Yevick, "Multicanonical communication system modeling—Application to PMD statistics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1512-1514 (2002).
  15. F. Wang, D. Landau, "Efficient, multiple-range random walk algorithm to calculate the density of states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2050-2053 (2001).
  16. D. Yevick, W. Bardyszewski, "A randomwalk procedure for evaluating probability distribution functions in communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 108-110 (2004).
  17. D. Yevick, M. Reimer, "Modified transition matrix simulations of communications systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, (2008).
  18. M. Windmann, S. Pachnicke, E. Voges, "PHOTOSS: The simulation tool for optical transmission system," Proc. SPIE 5247, 51-60 (2003).
  19. M. Fadel, M. Bulters, M. Niemand, E. Voges, P. M. Krummrich, "Low-loss and low-birefringence high-contrast silicon-oxynitride waveguides for optical communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 698-705 (2009).
  20. D. W. Marquardt, "An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters," SIAM J. Appl. Math. 11, 431-441 (1963).
  21. A. Djupsjöbacka, "On differential group-delay statistics for polarization-mode dispersion emulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 285-290 (2001).

2010 (1)

R. Tkach, "Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond," Bell Labs Tech. J. 14, 3-9 (2010).

2009 (2)

M. Bohn, C. Xia, "Electrical and optical equalization strategies in direct detected high-speed transmission systems," Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEU) 63, 526-532 (2009).

M. Fadel, M. Bulters, M. Niemand, E. Voges, P. M. Krummrich, "Low-loss and low-birefringence high-contrast silicon-oxynitride waveguides for optical communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 698-705 (2009).

2008 (2)

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

D. Yevick, M. Reimer, "Modified transition matrix simulations of communications systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, (2008).

2007 (1)

S. J. Savory, "Electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Exp. 15, 2120-2125 (2007).

2006 (1)

C. R. Menyuk, "Statistical errors in biasing Monte Carlo simulations with applications to polarization-mode dispersion compensators," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4184-4196 (2006).

2004 (1)

D. Yevick, W. Bardyszewski, "A randomwalk procedure for evaluating probability distribution functions in communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 108-110 (2004).

2003 (1)

M. Windmann, S. Pachnicke, E. Voges, "PHOTOSS: The simulation tool for optical transmission system," Proc. SPIE 5247, 51-60 (2003).

2002 (3)

D. Yevick, "Multicanonical communication system modeling—Application to PMD statistics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1512-1514 (2002).

J. Mietzner, S. Otte, "Optimal equalization of distortions due to group delay ripples of chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBG)," Intern. J. of Electronics and Communications 56, 187-192 (2002).

L. T. Lima, G. Biodini, B. S. Marks, W. L. Kath, C. R. Menyuk, "Analysis of PMD compensators with fixed DGD using importance sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 627-629 (2002).

2001 (2)

F. Wang, D. Landau, "Efficient, multiple-range random walk algorithm to calculate the density of states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2050-2053 (2001).

A. Djupsjöbacka, "On differential group-delay statistics for polarization-mode dispersion emulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 285-290 (2001).

1992 (1)

B. Berg, T. Neuhaus, "Multicanonical ensemble: A new approach to simulate first-order phase transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 9-12 (1992).

1963 (1)

D. W. Marquardt, "An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters," SIAM J. Appl. Math. 11, 431-441 (1963).

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

R. Tkach, "Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond," Bell Labs Tech. J. 14, 3-9 (2010).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

D. Yevick, M. Reimer, "Modified transition matrix simulations of communications systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. Yevick, W. Bardyszewski, "A randomwalk procedure for evaluating probability distribution functions in communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 108-110 (2004).

L. T. Lima, G. Biodini, B. S. Marks, W. L. Kath, C. R. Menyuk, "Analysis of PMD compensators with fixed DGD using importance sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 627-629 (2002).

D. Yevick, "Multicanonical communication system modeling—Application to PMD statistics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1512-1514 (2002).

Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEU) (1)

M. Bohn, C. Xia, "Electrical and optical equalization strategies in direct detected high-speed transmission systems," Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEU) 63, 526-532 (2009).

Intern. J. of Electronics and Communications (1)

J. Mietzner, S. Otte, "Optimal equalization of distortions due to group delay ripples of chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBG)," Intern. J. of Electronics and Communications 56, 187-192 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

C. R. Menyuk, "Statistical errors in biasing Monte Carlo simulations with applications to polarization-mode dispersion compensators," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4184-4196 (2006).

M. Fadel, M. Bulters, M. Niemand, E. Voges, P. M. Krummrich, "Low-loss and low-birefringence high-contrast silicon-oxynitride waveguides for optical communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 698-705 (2009).

A. Djupsjöbacka, "On differential group-delay statistics for polarization-mode dispersion emulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 285-290 (2001).

Opt. Exp. (2)

S. J. Savory, "Electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Exp. 15, 2120-2125 (2007).

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

B. Berg, T. Neuhaus, "Multicanonical ensemble: A new approach to simulate first-order phase transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 9-12 (1992).

F. Wang, D. Landau, "Efficient, multiple-range random walk algorithm to calculate the density of states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2050-2053 (2001).

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Windmann, S. Pachnicke, E. Voges, "PHOTOSS: The simulation tool for optical transmission system," Proc. SPIE 5247, 51-60 (2003).

SIAM J. Appl. Math. (1)

D. W. Marquardt, "An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters," SIAM J. Appl. Math. 11, 431-441 (1963).

Other (5)

R. Tkach, "Network traffic and system capacity: Scaling for the future," Proc. ECOC (2010).

I. Kaminov, Optical Fiber and Telecommunications IV B (Academic, 2002) pp. 658-695.

A. Dochhan, G. Göger, S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, W. Rosenkranz, "The influence of FBG phase ripple distortions—Comparison for different modulation formats," Proc. OFC (2008).

M. Westhäuser, C. Remmersmann, S. Pachnicke, B. Johansson, P. M. Krummrich, "Reducing fiber Bragg-Grating induced group delay ripples in 112 Gbit/s metro networks using generically initialized transversal filters," ITG-Fachtagung für Photonische Netze (2010).

M. Westhäuser, C. Remmersmann, S. Pachnicke, B. Johansson, P. M. Krummrich, "Optimization of optical equalization of group delay ripple-induced penalties from fiber Bragg gratings in 112 Gbit/s metro networks," Proc. Opt. Photon. Congress “Advanced Photonics” (2010).

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