Abstract

We present an optical ray-tracing study which investigates the influence of the refractive indexes of the matrix and the phosphor materials as well as the phosphor particle sizes of the color conversion elements (CCE) on the radiant flux of phosphor-conversion-based white light-emitting diodes. We show that an appropriate combination of those parameters is a crucial factor in order to optimize device efficacy.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, J. Q. Xi, "Solid-state lighting—A benevolent technology," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069-3099 (2006).
  2. E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).
  3. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
  4. J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, J. Y. Tsao, "Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting," Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307-333 (2007).
  5. H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
  6. N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 202, R60-R62 (2005).
  7. N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3556-3559 (2008).
  8. N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5145-5150 (2009).
  9. J. P. You, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration," Opt. Exp. 18, 5055-5060 (2010).
  10. S. C. Allen, A. J. Steckl, "A nearly ideal phosphor-converted light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
  11. Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, "Optical analysis of phosphor's location for high-power light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65-73 (2009).
  12. R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, P. Liang, "Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor converted light emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1765-1767 (2010).
  13. B. Hou, H. Rao, J. Li, "Methods of increasing luminous efficiency of phosphor converted LED realized by conformal phosphor coating," J. Display Technol. 5, 57-60 (2009).
  14. Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, "Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027-2029 (2008).
  15. C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, "Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 739-741 (2008).
  16. C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, "A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources," Opt. Mater. 31, 837-848 (2009).
  17. C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, "On the requirements for achieving angular homogeneity in phosphor converted high power flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 48, 070208 (2009).
  18. C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of inhomogeneities in the phosphor distribution on the device performance of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3226-3232 (2010).
  19. L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, H. W. Choi, "Angularly uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 513-515 (2010).
  20. J. D. Gosnell, S. J. Rosenthal, S. M. Weiss, "White light emission characteristics of polymer-encapsulated CdSe nanocrystal films," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 541-543 (2010).
  21. M.-T. Lin, S.-P. Ying, M.-Y. Lin, K.-Y. Tai, S.-C. Tai, C.-H. Liu, J.-C. Chen, C.-C. Sun, "Ring remote phosphor structure for phosphor-converted white LEDs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 574-576 (2010).
  22. C.-C. Sun, C.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. He, C.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chien, T.-X. Lee, T.-H. Yang, "Precise optical modeling for silicate-based white LEDs," Opt. Exp. 16, 20060-20066 (2010).
  23. Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: Effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 137-139 (2011).
  24. H.-T. Huang, C.-C. Tsai, Y.-P. Huang, "Conformal phosphor coating using pulsed spray to reduce color deviation of white LEDs," Opt. Exp. 18, A201-A206 (2010).
  25. Z.-Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X.-B. Luo, "Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation," IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Packag. Technol. 33, 680-687 (2010).
  26. K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Liu, X. Luo, S. Liu, "Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses," Opt. Lett. 35, 1860-1862 (2010).
  27. Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, H. K. Kwon, "Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property," Opt. Lett. 34, 1-3 (2009).
  28. G. Mie, "Articles on the optical characteristics of turbid tubes, especially colloidal metal solutions," Ann. Phys. 25, 377-445 (1908).
  29. C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, G. Leising, S. Tasch, "Silicate phosphors and white LED technology-improvements and opportunities," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 66690O.
  30. K. Ota, A. Hirano, A. Ota, S. Tasch, P. Pachler, G. Roth, W. Tews, W. Kempfert, D. Starick, Light emitting device having phosphor of alkaline earth metal U.S. Patent 6 943 380 (2010).
  31. Y.-H. Lin, J. P. You, Y.-C. Lin, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Development of high performance optical silicone for the packaging of high power LEDs," IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Packag. Technol. 33, 761-766 (2010).
  32. R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, P. Wellmann, "Light extraction form oLEDs for lighting applications through scattering," Org. Electron. 8, 293-299 (2007).

2011 (1)

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: Effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 137-139 (2011).

2010 (11)

H.-T. Huang, C.-C. Tsai, Y.-P. Huang, "Conformal phosphor coating using pulsed spray to reduce color deviation of white LEDs," Opt. Exp. 18, A201-A206 (2010).

Z.-Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X.-B. Luo, "Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation," IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Packag. Technol. 33, 680-687 (2010).

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of inhomogeneities in the phosphor distribution on the device performance of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3226-3232 (2010).

L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, H. W. Choi, "Angularly uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 513-515 (2010).

J. D. Gosnell, S. J. Rosenthal, S. M. Weiss, "White light emission characteristics of polymer-encapsulated CdSe nanocrystal films," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 541-543 (2010).

M.-T. Lin, S.-P. Ying, M.-Y. Lin, K.-Y. Tai, S.-C. Tai, C.-H. Liu, J.-C. Chen, C.-C. Sun, "Ring remote phosphor structure for phosphor-converted white LEDs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 574-576 (2010).

C.-C. Sun, C.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. He, C.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chien, T.-X. Lee, T.-H. Yang, "Precise optical modeling for silicate-based white LEDs," Opt. Exp. 16, 20060-20066 (2010).

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration," Opt. Exp. 18, 5055-5060 (2010).

R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, P. Liang, "Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor converted light emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1765-1767 (2010).

Y.-H. Lin, J. P. You, Y.-C. Lin, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Development of high performance optical silicone for the packaging of high power LEDs," IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Packag. Technol. 33, 761-766 (2010).

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Liu, X. Luo, S. Liu, "Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses," Opt. Lett. 35, 1860-1862 (2010).

2009 (6)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, "Optical analysis of phosphor's location for high-power light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65-73 (2009).

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, H. K. Kwon, "Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property," Opt. Lett. 34, 1-3 (2009).

B. Hou, H. Rao, J. Li, "Methods of increasing luminous efficiency of phosphor converted LED realized by conformal phosphor coating," J. Display Technol. 5, 57-60 (2009).

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, "A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources," Opt. Mater. 31, 837-848 (2009).

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, "On the requirements for achieving angular homogeneity in phosphor converted high power flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 48, 070208 (2009).

N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5145-5150 (2009).

2008 (4)

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3556-3559 (2008).

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, "Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027-2029 (2008).

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, "Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 739-741 (2008).

S. C. Allen, A. J. Steckl, "A nearly ideal phosphor-converted light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).

2007 (3)

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, J. Y. Tsao, "Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting," Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307-333 (2007).

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, P. Wellmann, "Light extraction form oLEDs for lighting applications through scattering," Org. Electron. 8, 293-299 (2007).

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).

2006 (1)

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, J. Q. Xi, "Solid-state lighting—A benevolent technology," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069-3099 (2006).

2005 (3)

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 202, R60-R62 (2005).

1908 (1)

G. Mie, "Articles on the optical characteristics of turbid tubes, especially colloidal metal solutions," Ann. Phys. 25, 377-445 (1908).

Ann. Phys. (1)

G. Mie, "Articles on the optical characteristics of turbid tubes, especially colloidal metal solutions," Ann. Phys. 25, 377-445 (1908).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).

S. C. Allen, A. J. Steckl, "A nearly ideal phosphor-converted light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, P. Liang, "Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor converted light emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1765-1767 (2010).

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, "Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027-2029 (2008).

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, "Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 739-741 (2008).

L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, H. W. Choi, "Angularly uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 513-515 (2010).

J. D. Gosnell, S. J. Rosenthal, S. M. Weiss, "White light emission characteristics of polymer-encapsulated CdSe nanocrystal films," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 541-543 (2010).

M.-T. Lin, S.-P. Ying, M.-Y. Lin, K.-Y. Tai, S.-C. Tai, C.-H. Liu, J.-C. Chen, C.-C. Sun, "Ring remote phosphor structure for phosphor-converted white LEDs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 574-576 (2010).

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: Effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 137-139 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Packag. Technol. (2)

Z.-Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X.-B. Luo, "Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation," IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Packag. Technol. 33, 680-687 (2010).

Y.-H. Lin, J. P. You, Y.-C. Lin, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Development of high performance optical silicone for the packaging of high power LEDs," IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Packag. Technol. 33, 761-766 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. (1)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, "Optical analysis of phosphor's location for high-power light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65-73 (2009).

J. Display Technol. (2)

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3556-3559 (2008).

N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5145-5150 (2009).

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of inhomogeneities in the phosphor distribution on the device performance of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3226-3232 (2010).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (1)

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, "On the requirements for achieving angular homogeneity in phosphor converted high power flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 48, 070208 (2009).

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, J. Y. Tsao, "Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting," Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307-333 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (3)

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration," Opt. Exp. 18, 5055-5060 (2010).

H.-T. Huang, C.-C. Tsai, Y.-P. Huang, "Conformal phosphor coating using pulsed spray to reduce color deviation of white LEDs," Opt. Exp. 18, A201-A206 (2010).

C.-C. Sun, C.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. He, C.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chien, T.-X. Lee, T.-H. Yang, "Precise optical modeling for silicate-based white LEDs," Opt. Exp. 16, 20060-20066 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, "A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources," Opt. Mater. 31, 837-848 (2009).

Org. Electron. (1)

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, P. Wellmann, "Light extraction form oLEDs for lighting applications through scattering," Org. Electron. 8, 293-299 (2007).

Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) (1)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 202, R60-R62 (2005).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, J. Q. Xi, "Solid-state lighting—A benevolent technology," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069-3099 (2006).

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).

Other (2)

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, G. Leising, S. Tasch, "Silicate phosphors and white LED technology-improvements and opportunities," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 66690O.

K. Ota, A. Hirano, A. Ota, S. Tasch, P. Pachler, G. Roth, W. Tews, W. Kempfert, D. Starick, Light emitting device having phosphor of alkaline earth metal U.S. Patent 6 943 380 (2010).

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