Abstract

We propose and theoretically analyze a novel transmitter emitting <i>m</i> wavelength-division multiplexed and independently modulated optical signals. The transmitter is based on an extended cavity formed by <i>m</i> wavelength-agnostic reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (one for each wavelength) on one end and a single modulation-averaging reflector on the other end of the cavity. We show that optimally designed modulation-averaging reflectors can efficiently change the intensity probability density function from bound bit-stream modulation to a normal distribution and thereby improve signal-to-noise ratio of all emitted optical signals. This improvement may potentially allow the realization of cost-efficient wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks (WDM-PON).

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. C.-H. Lee, W. V. Sorin, B. Y. Kim, "Fiber to the home using a PON infrastructure," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4568-4583 (2006).
  2. C. F. Lam, Passive Optical Networks: Principles and Practice (Academic, 2007).
  3. J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, M. Jaeger, "Cost versus reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56-65 (2010).
  4. H. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, J. H. Lee, E. S. Jung, J. H. Yu, B. W. Kim, S. S. Lee, S. H. Lee, J. S. Koh, B. H. Sung, S. J. Kang, J. H. Kim, J. T. Jeong, "First commercial service of a colorless gigabit WDM/TDM hybrid PON system," Proc. OSA/OFC/NFOEC (2009).
  5. B. Kim, B.-W. Kim, "WDM-PON development and deployment as a present optical access solution," Proc. Conf. Opt. Fiber Comm. (2009) pp. 1-3.
  6. D. J. Shin, Y. C. Keh, J. W. Kwon, E. H. Lee, J. K. Lee, M. K. Park, J. W. Park, Y. K. Oh, S. W. Kim, I. K. Yun, H. C. Shin, D. Heo, J. S. Lee, H. S. Shin, H. S. Kim, S. B. Park, D. K. Jun, S. Hwang, Y. J. Oh, D. H. Jang, C. S. Shim, "Low-cost WDM-PON with colorless, bidirectional transceivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 158-165 (2006).
  7. H. Takesue, T. Sugie, "Wavelength channel data rewrite using saturated SOA modulator for WDM networks with centralized light sources," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2546-2556 (2003).
  8. K. Y. Cho, Y. J. Lee, H. Y. Choi, A. Murakami, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Effects of reflection in RSOA-based WDM-PON utilizing remodulation technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1286-1295 (2009).
  9. M. H. Reeve, A. R. Hurwicks, S. G. Methley, L. Bickers, S. Hornung, "LED spectral slicing for single-mode local loop applications," IEE Electron. Lett. 24, 389-390 (1988).
  10. D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C.-H. Lee, Y. C. Chung, "Wavelength-division -multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1334-1336 (1998).
  11. S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, H.-K. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, C.-H. Lee, "A WDM-PON with 40 Gb/s (32$\,\times\,$1.25 Gb/s) capacity based on wavelength-locked Fabry–Perot laser diodes," Opt. Exp. 16, 11361-11368 (2008).
  12. H. D. Kim, S.-G. Kang, C.-H. Lee, "A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1067-1069 (2000).
  13. S. Hann, T. Y. Kim, C. S. Park, "Direct-modulated upstream signal transmission using a self-injection locked F-P LD for WDM-PON," Proc. ECOC 2005 (2005) pp. 451-452.
  14. N. Nadarajah, K. L. Lee, A. Nirmalathas, "Upstream access and local area netowrking in passive optical networks using self-seeded reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1559-1561 (2007).
  15. H.-C. Kwon, Y.-Y. Won, S.-K. Han, "A self-seeded reflective SOA-based optical network unit for optical beat interference robust WDM/SCM-PON link," IEEE Photon. Technol. 18, 1852-1854 (2006).
  16. J.-M. Kang, T.-Y. Kim, I.-H. Choi, S.-H. Lee, S.-K. Han, "Self-seeded reflective semiconductor optical amplifier based optical transmitter for up-stream WDM-PON link," IET Optoelectron. 1, 77-81 (2007).
  17. E. Wong, K. L. Lee, T. B. Anderson, "Directly modulated self-seeding reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers as colorless transmitters in wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 67-74 (2007).
  18. K. Lee, E. Wong, "Directly-modulated self-seeding reflective SOAs in WDM-PONs: performance dependence on seeding power and modulation effects," Proc. ECOC (2006).
  19. D. J. Shin, D. K. Jung, H. S. Shin, J. W. Kwon, S. Hwang, Y. Oh, C. Shim, "Hybrid WDM/TDM-PON with wavelength-selection-free transmitters," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 187-195 (2005).
  20. F. Payoux, P. Chanclou, N. Genay, "WDM-PON with colorless ONUs," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).
  21. N. K. Dutta, Q. Wang, Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (World Scientific, 2006).
  22. B. P. Demidovich, I. A. Maron, Computational Mathematics (MIR Publishers, 1981).
  23. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 1997).
  24. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley Classics Library, 2000).
  25. A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, D. Huff, H. Zarem, "An experimental and theoretical study of the suppresion of interferometric noise and distortion in AM optical links by phase dither," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 437-443 (1997).
  26. P. L. Meyer, Introductory Probability and Statistical Applications (Addison-Wesley, 1970).
  27. J. Robinson, Y. Rahmat-Samii, "Particle swarm optimization in electromagnetics," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 52, 397-407 (2004).
  28. J. J. Liang, K. Qin, P. N. Suganthan, S. Baskar, "Comprehensive learning particle swarm optimizer for global optimization of multimodal functions," IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 10, 281-295 (2006).
  29. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Adam Hilger Ltd., 1986).
  30. W. Feller, An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications (Wiley, 1971).
  31. CIP TechnologiesSOA & RSOA Specifications www.ciphotonics.com.
  32. G. Brown, "Bandwidth and rise time calculation for digital multimode fiber-optics data links," J. Lightw. Techol. 10, 672-678 (1992).
  33. Information Technology—Fibre Channel—Methodologies for Jitter Specification, International Committee for Information Technology Standards: INCITS TR-25-1999 http://www.t11.org.
  34. C. Pease, D. Babić, "Practical measurement of timing jitter contributed by a clock-and-data recovery circuit," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers 52, 119-126 (2005).

2010 (1)

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, M. Jaeger, "Cost versus reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56-65 (2010).

2009 (1)

K. Y. Cho, Y. J. Lee, H. Y. Choi, A. Murakami, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Effects of reflection in RSOA-based WDM-PON utilizing remodulation technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1286-1295 (2009).

2008 (1)

S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, H.-K. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, C.-H. Lee, "A WDM-PON with 40 Gb/s (32$\,\times\,$1.25 Gb/s) capacity based on wavelength-locked Fabry–Perot laser diodes," Opt. Exp. 16, 11361-11368 (2008).

2007 (3)

J.-M. Kang, T.-Y. Kim, I.-H. Choi, S.-H. Lee, S.-K. Han, "Self-seeded reflective semiconductor optical amplifier based optical transmitter for up-stream WDM-PON link," IET Optoelectron. 1, 77-81 (2007).

E. Wong, K. L. Lee, T. B. Anderson, "Directly modulated self-seeding reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers as colorless transmitters in wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 67-74 (2007).

N. Nadarajah, K. L. Lee, A. Nirmalathas, "Upstream access and local area netowrking in passive optical networks using self-seeded reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1559-1561 (2007).

2006 (4)

H.-C. Kwon, Y.-Y. Won, S.-K. Han, "A self-seeded reflective SOA-based optical network unit for optical beat interference robust WDM/SCM-PON link," IEEE Photon. Technol. 18, 1852-1854 (2006).

J. J. Liang, K. Qin, P. N. Suganthan, S. Baskar, "Comprehensive learning particle swarm optimizer for global optimization of multimodal functions," IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 10, 281-295 (2006).

C.-H. Lee, W. V. Sorin, B. Y. Kim, "Fiber to the home using a PON infrastructure," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4568-4583 (2006).

D. J. Shin, Y. C. Keh, J. W. Kwon, E. H. Lee, J. K. Lee, M. K. Park, J. W. Park, Y. K. Oh, S. W. Kim, I. K. Yun, H. C. Shin, D. Heo, J. S. Lee, H. S. Shin, H. S. Kim, S. B. Park, D. K. Jun, S. Hwang, Y. J. Oh, D. H. Jang, C. S. Shim, "Low-cost WDM-PON with colorless, bidirectional transceivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 158-165 (2006).

2005 (2)

C. Pease, D. Babić, "Practical measurement of timing jitter contributed by a clock-and-data recovery circuit," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers 52, 119-126 (2005).

D. J. Shin, D. K. Jung, H. S. Shin, J. W. Kwon, S. Hwang, Y. Oh, C. Shim, "Hybrid WDM/TDM-PON with wavelength-selection-free transmitters," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 187-195 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. Robinson, Y. Rahmat-Samii, "Particle swarm optimization in electromagnetics," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 52, 397-407 (2004).

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

H. D. Kim, S.-G. Kang, C.-H. Lee, "A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1067-1069 (2000).

1998 (1)

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C.-H. Lee, Y. C. Chung, "Wavelength-division -multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1334-1336 (1998).

1997 (1)

A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, D. Huff, H. Zarem, "An experimental and theoretical study of the suppresion of interferometric noise and distortion in AM optical links by phase dither," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 437-443 (1997).

1992 (1)

G. Brown, "Bandwidth and rise time calculation for digital multimode fiber-optics data links," J. Lightw. Techol. 10, 672-678 (1992).

1988 (1)

M. H. Reeve, A. R. Hurwicks, S. G. Methley, L. Bickers, S. Hornung, "LED spectral slicing for single-mode local loop applications," IEE Electron. Lett. 24, 389-390 (1988).

IEE Electron. Lett. (1)

M. H. Reeve, A. R. Hurwicks, S. G. Methley, L. Bickers, S. Hornung, "LED spectral slicing for single-mode local loop applications," IEE Electron. Lett. 24, 389-390 (1988).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, M. Jaeger, "Cost versus reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56-65 (2010).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

D. J. Shin, D. K. Jung, H. S. Shin, J. W. Kwon, S. Hwang, Y. Oh, C. Shim, "Hybrid WDM/TDM-PON with wavelength-selection-free transmitters," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 187-195 (2005).

E. Wong, K. L. Lee, T. B. Anderson, "Directly modulated self-seeding reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers as colorless transmitters in wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 67-74 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. (1)

H.-C. Kwon, Y.-Y. Won, S.-K. Han, "A self-seeded reflective SOA-based optical network unit for optical beat interference robust WDM/SCM-PON link," IEEE Photon. Technol. 18, 1852-1854 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

N. Nadarajah, K. L. Lee, A. Nirmalathas, "Upstream access and local area netowrking in passive optical networks using self-seeded reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1559-1561 (2007).

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C.-H. Lee, Y. C. Chung, "Wavelength-division -multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1334-1336 (1998).

H. D. Kim, S.-G. Kang, C.-H. Lee, "A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1067-1069 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. (1)

J. Robinson, Y. Rahmat-Samii, "Particle swarm optimization in electromagnetics," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 52, 397-407 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers (1)

C. Pease, D. Babić, "Practical measurement of timing jitter contributed by a clock-and-data recovery circuit," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers 52, 119-126 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. (1)

J. J. Liang, K. Qin, P. N. Suganthan, S. Baskar, "Comprehensive learning particle swarm optimizer for global optimization of multimodal functions," IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 10, 281-295 (2006).

IET Optoelectron. (1)

J.-M. Kang, T.-Y. Kim, I.-H. Choi, S.-H. Lee, S.-K. Han, "Self-seeded reflective semiconductor optical amplifier based optical transmitter for up-stream WDM-PON link," IET Optoelectron. 1, 77-81 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

K. Y. Cho, Y. J. Lee, H. Y. Choi, A. Murakami, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Effects of reflection in RSOA-based WDM-PON utilizing remodulation technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1286-1295 (2009).

A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, D. Huff, H. Zarem, "An experimental and theoretical study of the suppresion of interferometric noise and distortion in AM optical links by phase dither," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 437-443 (1997).

C.-H. Lee, W. V. Sorin, B. Y. Kim, "Fiber to the home using a PON infrastructure," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4568-4583 (2006).

D. J. Shin, Y. C. Keh, J. W. Kwon, E. H. Lee, J. K. Lee, M. K. Park, J. W. Park, Y. K. Oh, S. W. Kim, I. K. Yun, H. C. Shin, D. Heo, J. S. Lee, H. S. Shin, H. S. Kim, S. B. Park, D. K. Jun, S. Hwang, Y. J. Oh, D. H. Jang, C. S. Shim, "Low-cost WDM-PON with colorless, bidirectional transceivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 158-165 (2006).

J. Lightw. Techol. (1)

G. Brown, "Bandwidth and rise time calculation for digital multimode fiber-optics data links," J. Lightw. Techol. 10, 672-678 (1992).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Exp. (1)

S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, H.-K. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, C.-H. Lee, "A WDM-PON with 40 Gb/s (32$\,\times\,$1.25 Gb/s) capacity based on wavelength-locked Fabry–Perot laser diodes," Opt. Exp. 16, 11361-11368 (2008).

Other (15)

S. Hann, T. Y. Kim, C. S. Park, "Direct-modulated upstream signal transmission using a self-injection locked F-P LD for WDM-PON," Proc. ECOC 2005 (2005) pp. 451-452.

P. L. Meyer, Introductory Probability and Statistical Applications (Addison-Wesley, 1970).

K. Lee, E. Wong, "Directly-modulated self-seeding reflective SOAs in WDM-PONs: performance dependence on seeding power and modulation effects," Proc. ECOC (2006).

F. Payoux, P. Chanclou, N. Genay, "WDM-PON with colorless ONUs," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).

N. K. Dutta, Q. Wang, Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (World Scientific, 2006).

B. P. Demidovich, I. A. Maron, Computational Mathematics (MIR Publishers, 1981).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 1997).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley Classics Library, 2000).

H. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, J. H. Lee, E. S. Jung, J. H. Yu, B. W. Kim, S. S. Lee, S. H. Lee, J. S. Koh, B. H. Sung, S. J. Kang, J. H. Kim, J. T. Jeong, "First commercial service of a colorless gigabit WDM/TDM hybrid PON system," Proc. OSA/OFC/NFOEC (2009).

B. Kim, B.-W. Kim, "WDM-PON development and deployment as a present optical access solution," Proc. Conf. Opt. Fiber Comm. (2009) pp. 1-3.

Information Technology—Fibre Channel—Methodologies for Jitter Specification, International Committee for Information Technology Standards: INCITS TR-25-1999 http://www.t11.org.

C. F. Lam, Passive Optical Networks: Principles and Practice (Academic, 2007).

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Adam Hilger Ltd., 1986).

W. Feller, An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications (Wiley, 1971).

CIP TechnologiesSOA & RSOA Specifications www.ciphotonics.com.

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