Abstract

We describe novel techniques for closed-loop control of inner and outer Mach–Zehnder (MZ) biases in a dual parallel MZ (DPMZ) optical modulator. We also present a new technique based on modulator bias dithers to monitor the optical power contribution of each RF data path. The latter is demonstrated in an <i>I-Q</i> power balance control loop. We show that the new control methods are extremely robust in presence of modulator non-idealities, such as finite extinction ratios and non-zero chirp. We also demonstrate these techniques to be largely independent of RF drive waveform characteristics. Mathematical derivations of control transfer curves are provided. These are supported by simulation and measurement results. Additionally, we present a simple technique for polarization power balance in a dual-polarization modulation format. Finally, we discuss some practical details related to the implementation of the control loops described in this work.

© 2011 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, C. Laperle, "Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3546-3559 (2009).
  2. L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, "Capabilities of real-time digital coherent transceivers," ECOC2010 (2010).
  3. E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber systems," Opt. Express 16, 753-791 (2008).
  4. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
  5. S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, R. Noe, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40$\,\times\,$2$\,\times\,$24$\,\times\,$40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
  6. P. S. Cho, J. B. Khurgin, I. Shpantzer, "Closed-loop bias control of optical quadrature modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2209-2211 (2006).
  7. K. Sekine, C. Hasegawa, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, "A novel bias control technique for MZ modulator with monitoring power of backward light for advanced modulation formats," Proc. OFC2007 .
  8. H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator," Electron. Lett. 46, 430-431 (2010).
  9. T. Yoshida, T. Sugihara, K. Uto, H. Bessho, K. Sawada, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Mizuochi, "A study on automatic bias control for arbitrary optical signal generation by dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder modulator," ECOC2010 (2010).
  10. W.-R. Peng, B. Zhang, X. Wu, K.-M. Feng, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Compensation for I/Q imbalances and bias deviation of the Mach–Zehnder modulators in direct-detected optical OFDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 103-105 (2009).
  11. C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. O'Sullivan, "WDM performance and PMD tolerance of a coherent 40-Gbit/s dual-polarization QPSK transceiver," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 168-175 (2008).
  12. M. Bouda, "Implementation agreement for integrated polarization multiplexed quadrature modulated transmitters," Optical Internetworking Forum, IA #OIF-PMQ-TX-01.0 (2010) http://www.oiforum.com/public/documents/OIF-PMQ-TX-01.0.pdf.

2010 (1)

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator," Electron. Lett. 46, 430-431 (2010).

2009 (2)

W.-R. Peng, B. Zhang, X. Wu, K.-M. Feng, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Compensation for I/Q imbalances and bias deviation of the Mach–Zehnder modulators in direct-detected optical OFDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 103-105 (2009).

K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, C. Laperle, "Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3546-3559 (2009).

2008 (2)

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber systems," Opt. Express 16, 753-791 (2008).

C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. O'Sullivan, "WDM performance and PMD tolerance of a coherent 40-Gbit/s dual-polarization QPSK transceiver," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 168-175 (2008).

2006 (1)

P. S. Cho, J. B. Khurgin, I. Shpantzer, "Closed-loop bias control of optical quadrature modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2209-2211 (2006).

2005 (1)

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, R. Noe, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40$\,\times\,$2$\,\times\,$24$\,\times\,$40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).

2000 (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator," Electron. Lett. 46, 430-431 (2010).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, C. Laperle, "Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3546-3559 (2009).

C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. O'Sullivan, "WDM performance and PMD tolerance of a coherent 40-Gbit/s dual-polarization QPSK transceiver," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 168-175 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, R. Noe, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40$\,\times\,$2$\,\times\,$24$\,\times\,$40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).

P. S. Cho, J. B. Khurgin, I. Shpantzer, "Closed-loop bias control of optical quadrature modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2209-2211 (2006).

W.-R. Peng, B. Zhang, X. Wu, K.-M. Feng, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Compensation for I/Q imbalances and bias deviation of the Mach–Zehnder modulators in direct-detected optical OFDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 103-105 (2009).

Opt. Express (1)

Other (4)

M. Bouda, "Implementation agreement for integrated polarization multiplexed quadrature modulated transmitters," Optical Internetworking Forum, IA #OIF-PMQ-TX-01.0 (2010) http://www.oiforum.com/public/documents/OIF-PMQ-TX-01.0.pdf.

K. Sekine, C. Hasegawa, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, "A novel bias control technique for MZ modulator with monitoring power of backward light for advanced modulation formats," Proc. OFC2007 .

L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, "Capabilities of real-time digital coherent transceivers," ECOC2010 (2010).

T. Yoshida, T. Sugihara, K. Uto, H. Bessho, K. Sawada, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Mizuochi, "A study on automatic bias control for arbitrary optical signal generation by dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder modulator," ECOC2010 (2010).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.