Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel optical method to generate multi-level signals with reduced driving voltage through degenerate four-wave mixing processes. With the present approach, it is possible to extend the size of the signal constellations and at the same time reduce the modulator driving voltage without bandwidth degradations. In our experiments, one amplitude shift keying (ASK) signal and one differential phase shift keying (DPSK) signal are used to generate one ASK-DPSK signal with clearly opened eye-diagrams and error-free demodulation results. Our numerical simulations show that the proposed method is applicable for generating several 8-ary and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals with silicon waveguides at a higher modulation baud rate.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. X. Zhou, J. Yu, "Multi-level, multi-dimensional coding for high-speed and high-spectral-efficiency optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3641-3653 (2009).
  2. I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 631-633 (2010).
  3. M. Nakazawa, "Optical quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with coherent detection up to 128 states," OFC2009 San Diego (2009) Paper OThG1.
  4. M. Nakamura, Y. Kamio, "30-Gbps (5-Gsymbol/s) 64-QAM self-homodyne transmission over 60-km SSMF using phase-noise cancelling technique and ISI-suppression based on electronic digital processing," OFC2009 San Diego (2009) Paper OWG4.
  5. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, L. L. Buhl, "Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547-556 (2010).
  6. A. Sano, "240-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 64-QAM modulation and blind detection using PLC-LN hybrid integrated modulator and digital coherent receiver," ECOC2009 ViennaAustria (2009) Paper PD2.2.
  7. Z. Xiang, Y. Jianjun, "200-Gb/s PDM-16QAM generation using a new synthesizing method," ECOC2009 ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 10.3.5.
  8. R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. F. Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
  9. L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, R. T. Chen, "High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator for low voltage operation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
  10. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 660-668 (2007).
  11. Y. Gao, Y. Xie, S. He, "Reducing the driving voltage of a phase modulator with cascaded four-wave-mixing processes," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 27, 2360-2364 (2010).
  12. J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, "Nonlinear silicon photonics," Nature Photon. 4, 535-544 (2010).
  13. H. Hu, E. Palushani, M. Galili, H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Clausen, L. K. Oxenløwe, P. Jeppesen, "640 Gbit/s and 1.28 Tbit/s polarisation insensitive all optical wavelength conversion," Opt. Exp. 18, 9961-9966 (2010).
  14. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, K. Bergman, "Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 182-184 (2009).
  15. Y. Gao, L. Xu, S. Gao, S. He, "Optical ASK-DPSK and QAM signal generation using FWM in high nonlinearity fiber (HNLF)," OFC2011 Los Angeles (2011) Paper OML6.
  16. Y. Tang, H. Chen, S. Jain, J. D. Peters, U. Westergren, J. E. Bowers, "50 Gb/s hybrid silicon traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5811-5816 (2011).
  17. S. Gao, X. Zhang, Z. Li, S. He, "Polarization-independent wavelength conversion using an angled-polarization pump in a silicon nanowire waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 250-256 (2010).

2011

Y. Tang, H. Chen, S. Jain, J. D. Peters, U. Westergren, J. E. Bowers, "50 Gb/s hybrid silicon traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5811-5816 (2011).

2010

S. Gao, X. Zhang, Z. Li, S. He, "Polarization-independent wavelength conversion using an angled-polarization pump in a silicon nanowire waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 250-256 (2010).

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 631-633 (2010).

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, L. L. Buhl, "Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547-556 (2010).

Y. Gao, Y. Xie, S. He, "Reducing the driving voltage of a phase modulator with cascaded four-wave-mixing processes," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 27, 2360-2364 (2010).

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, "Nonlinear silicon photonics," Nature Photon. 4, 535-544 (2010).

H. Hu, E. Palushani, M. Galili, H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Clausen, L. K. Oxenløwe, P. Jeppesen, "640 Gbit/s and 1.28 Tbit/s polarisation insensitive all optical wavelength conversion," Opt. Exp. 18, 9961-9966 (2010).

2009

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, K. Bergman, "Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 182-184 (2009).

X. Zhou, J. Yu, "Multi-level, multi-dimensional coding for high-speed and high-spectral-efficiency optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3641-3653 (2009).

2007

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, R. T. Chen, "High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator for low voltage operation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 660-668 (2007).

2006

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. F. Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, R. T. Chen, "High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator for low voltage operation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. Gao, X. Zhang, Z. Li, S. He, "Polarization-independent wavelength conversion using an angled-polarization pump in a silicon nanowire waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 250-256 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, K. Bergman, "Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 182-184 (2009).

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 631-633 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, L. L. Buhl, "Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547-556 (2010).

X. Zhou, J. Yu, "Multi-level, multi-dimensional coding for high-speed and high-spectral-efficiency optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3641-3653 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

Y. Gao, Y. Xie, S. He, "Reducing the driving voltage of a phase modulator with cascaded four-wave-mixing processes," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 27, 2360-2364 (2010).

Nature

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. F. Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).

Nature Photon.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, "Nonlinear silicon photonics," Nature Photon. 4, 535-544 (2010).

Opt. Exp.

H. Hu, E. Palushani, M. Galili, H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Clausen, L. K. Oxenløwe, P. Jeppesen, "640 Gbit/s and 1.28 Tbit/s polarisation insensitive all optical wavelength conversion," Opt. Exp. 18, 9961-9966 (2010).

Y. Tang, H. Chen, S. Jain, J. D. Peters, U. Westergren, J. E. Bowers, "50 Gb/s hybrid silicon traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5811-5816 (2011).

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 660-668 (2007).

Other

A. Sano, "240-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 64-QAM modulation and blind detection using PLC-LN hybrid integrated modulator and digital coherent receiver," ECOC2009 ViennaAustria (2009) Paper PD2.2.

Z. Xiang, Y. Jianjun, "200-Gb/s PDM-16QAM generation using a new synthesizing method," ECOC2009 ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 10.3.5.

M. Nakazawa, "Optical quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with coherent detection up to 128 states," OFC2009 San Diego (2009) Paper OThG1.

M. Nakamura, Y. Kamio, "30-Gbps (5-Gsymbol/s) 64-QAM self-homodyne transmission over 60-km SSMF using phase-noise cancelling technique and ISI-suppression based on electronic digital processing," OFC2009 San Diego (2009) Paper OWG4.

Y. Gao, L. Xu, S. Gao, S. He, "Optical ASK-DPSK and QAM signal generation using FWM in high nonlinearity fiber (HNLF)," OFC2011 Los Angeles (2011) Paper OML6.

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