Abstract

The evolution of surface plasmon (SP) supermodes through the effective coupling of isolated SP modes in a semiinsulating quantum cascade laser (QCL) waveguide is thoroughly discussed here. The effect of varying the material and geometric parameters of GaSb/AlGaSb QCL operating at 3.0 THz are thoroughly studied using a full-vectorial finite-element method. It was observed that this structure is prone to mode degeneration caused by resonant interaction of the lasing mode with a higher order plasmon mode. An optimized design is also proposed to suppress such adverse affects and highly divergent field profiles arising from the generation of higher order lateral modes.

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2008

J. A. Fan, B. Mikail A, F. Capasso, "Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106-1-031106-3 (2008).

H. Yasuda, I. Hosako, "Terahertz waveguide design for GaSb/AlGaSb quantum cascade laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1575-1578 (2008).

2006

C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, V. Rakocevic, K. T. V. Grattan, "Finite element solutions of surface-plasmon modes in metal-clad dielectric waveguides at THz frequency," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 5111-5118 (2006).

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, "Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide," Opt. Exp. 14, 11672-11680 (2006).

A. D. Rossi, M. Carras, D. Paul, "Low-loss surface-mode waveguides for THz Si-SiGe quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 42, 1233-1238 (2006).

2005

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106-1-053106-9 (2005).

H. Yasuda, I. Hosako, S. Miyashita, M. Patrashin, "Terahertz electroluminescence from GaSb/AlGaSb quantum cascade laser," Electron. Lett. 41, 1062-1063 (2005).

L. Ajili, G. Scalari, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, "InGaAs-AlInAs/InP terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141107-1-141107-3 (2005).

2004

L. Ajili, G. Scalari, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, G. Davies, "High power quantum cascade lasers operating at $\lambda = 88$ and $130\ \mu$m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3986-3988 (2004).

2003

B. Williams, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at $\lambda \sim {\hbox {100}}\ \mu$m using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124-2126 (2003).

2002

O. Esteban, R. Alonson, M. Navarrete, A. Gonzalez-Cano, "Surface plasmon excitation in fiber-optics sensors: A novel theoretical approach," J. Lightw. Technol 20, 448-453 (2002).

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Lotti, F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).

1998

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, "Far-infrared ($\lambda \sim {\hbox {88}}\ \mu$m) electroluminescence in a quantum cascade structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3724-3726 (1998).

1994

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).

L. Sun, G. Yip, "Analysis of metal-clad optical waveguide polarizers by the vector beam propagation method," Appl. Opt. 33, 1047-1050 (1994).

1984

B. M. A. Rahman, J. Davies, "Penalty function improvement of waveguide solution by finite elements," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-32, 922-928 (1984).

1983

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. Williams, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at $\lambda \sim {\hbox {100}}\ \mu$m using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124-2126 (2003).

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, "Far-infrared ($\lambda \sim {\hbox {88}}\ \mu$m) electroluminescence in a quantum cascade structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3724-3726 (1998).

J. A. Fan, B. Mikail A, F. Capasso, "Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106-1-031106-3 (2008).

L. Ajili, G. Scalari, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, "InGaAs-AlInAs/InP terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141107-1-141107-3 (2005).

L. Ajili, G. Scalari, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, G. Davies, "High power quantum cascade lasers operating at $\lambda = 88$ and $130\ \mu$m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3986-3988 (2004).

Electron. Lett.

H. Yasuda, I. Hosako, S. Miyashita, M. Patrashin, "Terahertz electroluminescence from GaSb/AlGaSb quantum cascade laser," Electron. Lett. 41, 1062-1063 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.

A. D. Rossi, M. Carras, D. Paul, "Low-loss surface-mode waveguides for THz Si-SiGe quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 42, 1233-1238 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

B. M. A. Rahman, J. Davies, "Penalty function improvement of waveguide solution by finite elements," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-32, 922-928 (1984).

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106-1-053106-9 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol

O. Esteban, R. Alonson, M. Navarrete, A. Gonzalez-Cano, "Surface plasmon excitation in fiber-optics sensors: A novel theoretical approach," J. Lightw. Technol 20, 448-453 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol.

C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, V. Rakocevic, K. T. V. Grattan, "Finite element solutions of surface-plasmon modes in metal-clad dielectric waveguides at THz frequency," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 5111-5118 (2006).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Yasuda, I. Hosako, "Terahertz waveguide design for GaSb/AlGaSb quantum cascade laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1575-1578 (2008).

Nature

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Lotti, F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).

Opt. Exp.

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, "Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide," Opt. Exp. 14, 11672-11680 (2006).

Science

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).

Other

R. Paiella, Intersubband Transition in Quantum Structures (McGraw-Hill, 2006).

J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, Houghton, H. E. Beere, E. L. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, "Optimum resonant tunnelling injection and influence of doping density on the performance of THz bound-to-continuum cascade lasers," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 65-73.

D. F. Edwards, R. H. White, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985) pp. 429.

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