Abstract

We propose and demonstrate an advanced optical modulation format that makes use of both spectral and temporal phase encodings (2-D) for applications requiring exceptional security. The method combines modulation techniques used in direct-sequence spread-spectrum coding, spectral-phase encoding, and M-ary phase-shift keying with codes generated using cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generators. The wideband transmission signal is very difficult for an eavesdropper to record or analyze. Signal-to-noise ratio limitations imposed by quantum effects enhance the security further. The properties of the transmitted signal make it especially useful for physics-based key expansion systems. We have successfully used this setup to transmit encrypted 155 Mb/s data over 70 km of fiber with a BER value of 4E-5.

© 2011 IEEE

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  3. G. S. Kanter, D. Reilly, N. Smith, "Practical physical-layer encryption: The marriage of optical noise with traditional cryptography," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 74-81 (2009).
  4. N. Ferguson, B. Schneier, Practical Cryptography (Wiley, 2003).
  5. V. Scarani, H. Pasquinucci, N. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, M. Peev, "The security of practical quantum key distribution," Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301-1350 (2009).
  6. H. P. Yuen, "Key generation: Foundations and a new quantum approach," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1630-1645 (2009).
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  13. T. O'Farrell, S. I. Lochmann, "Switched correlator receiver architecture for optical CDMA networks with bipolar capacity," Electron. Lett. 31, 905-906 (1995).
  14. V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "320-Gb/s capacity (32 users$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA local area network testbed," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper PDP45.
  15. T. H. Shake, "Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1652-1663 (2005).
  16. A. Rundquist, A. Efimov, D. H. Reitze, "Pulse shaping with the Gerchberg–Saxton algorithm," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 19, 2468-2478 (2002).
  17. K. Ohhata, O. Hirota, M. Honda, S. Akutsu, Y. Doi, K. Harasawa, K. Yamashita, "10-Gb/s optical transceiver using the Yuen 2000 encryption protocol," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2714-2723 (2010).
  18. T. Tomaru, S. Sasaki, "Fiber transmissions of antisqueezed light for secure communications," Opt. Commun. 282, 1047-1051 (2009).
  19. D. T. Pegg, S. M. Barnett, "Tutorial review: Quantum optical phase," J. Modern Opt. 44, 225-264 (1997).
  20. H. Bulow, F. Buchali, A. Klekamp, "Electronic dispersion compensation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 158-167 (2008).
  21. T. Yilmaz, C. M. Depriest, A. Braun, J. H. Abeles, P. J. Delfyett, "Noise in fundamental and harmonic mode-locked semiconductor lasers: Experiments and simulations," J. Quantum Electron. 39, 838-849 (2003).
  22. R. Nair, H. P. Yuen, E. Corndorf, T. Eguchi, P. Kumar, "Quantum noise randomized ciphers," Phys. Rev. A 74, 052309-1-052309-13 (2006).
  23. H. P. Yuen, R. Nair, "On the security of Y-00 under fast correlation and other attacks on the key," Phys. Lett. A 364, 112-116 (2007).
  24. A. M. Weiner, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, "Spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA [invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 728-755 (2007).
  25. M. A. Dugan, J. X. Tull, W. S. Warren, "High-resolution acousto-optic shaping of femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 14, 2348-2358 (1997).
  26. S. Gee, F. J. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, P. J. Delfyett, "Correlation of supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 24, 1490-1497 (2007).

2010

S. X. Wang, D. R. Reilly, G. S. Kanter, S. Ozharar, P. Kumar, "Running-code optical CDMA at 2$\,\times\,$10 Gbit/s and 40 Gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 46, 701-703 (2010).

K. Ohhata, O. Hirota, M. Honda, S. Akutsu, Y. Doi, K. Harasawa, K. Yamashita, "10-Gb/s optical transceiver using the Yuen 2000 encryption protocol," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2714-2723 (2010).

2009

T. Tomaru, S. Sasaki, "Fiber transmissions of antisqueezed light for secure communications," Opt. Commun. 282, 1047-1051 (2009).

G. S. Kanter, D. Reilly, N. Smith, "Practical physical-layer encryption: The marriage of optical noise with traditional cryptography," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 74-81 (2009).

V. Scarani, H. Pasquinucci, N. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, M. Peev, "The security of practical quantum key distribution," Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301-1350 (2009).

H. P. Yuen, "Key generation: Foundations and a new quantum approach," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1630-1645 (2009).

2008

H. Bulow, F. Buchali, A. Klekamp, "Electronic dispersion compensation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 158-167 (2008).

2007

H. P. Yuen, R. Nair, "On the security of Y-00 under fast correlation and other attacks on the key," Phys. Lett. A 364, 112-116 (2007).

S. Gee, F. J. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, P. J. Delfyett, "Correlation of supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 24, 1490-1497 (2007).

A. M. Weiner, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, "Spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA [invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 728-755 (2007).

2006

R. Nair, H. P. Yuen, E. Corndorf, T. Eguchi, P. Kumar, "Quantum noise randomized ciphers," Phys. Rev. A 74, 052309-1-052309-13 (2006).

J. Scheuer, A. Yariv, "Giant fiber lasers: A new paradigm for secure key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 140502-1-140502-4 (2006).

A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, S. Etemad, "Spectrally efficient six-user coherent OCDMA system using reconfigurable integrated ring resonator circuits," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1952-1954 (2006).

2005

T. H. Shake, "Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1652-1663 (2005).

2003

T. Yilmaz, C. M. Depriest, A. Braun, J. H. Abeles, P. J. Delfyett, "Noise in fundamental and harmonic mode-locked semiconductor lasers: Experiments and simulations," J. Quantum Electron. 39, 838-849 (2003).

F. Zhang, P. L. Chu, "Effect of transmission fiber on chaos communication system based on erbium-doped fiber ring laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3334-3343 (2003).

H. Hodara, E. Miles, J. Menders, W. Wells, "Secure fiberoptic communications," Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 47-61 (2003).

2002

A. Rundquist, A. Efimov, D. H. Reitze, "Pulse shaping with the Gerchberg–Saxton algorithm," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 19, 2468-2478 (2002).

1998

H. P. Yuen, A. M. Kim, "Classical noise-based cryptography similar to two-state quantum cryptography," Phy. Lett. A 241, 135-138 (1998).

1997

D. T. Pegg, S. M. Barnett, "Tutorial review: Quantum optical phase," J. Modern Opt. 44, 225-264 (1997).

M. A. Dugan, J. X. Tull, W. S. Warren, "High-resolution acousto-optic shaping of femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 14, 2348-2358 (1997).

1995

T. O'Farrell, S. I. Lochmann, "Switched correlator receiver architecture for optical CDMA networks with bipolar capacity," Electron. Lett. 31, 905-906 (1995).

Electron. Lett.

S. X. Wang, D. R. Reilly, G. S. Kanter, S. Ozharar, P. Kumar, "Running-code optical CDMA at 2$\,\times\,$10 Gbit/s and 40 Gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 46, 701-703 (2010).

T. O'Farrell, S. I. Lochmann, "Switched correlator receiver architecture for optical CDMA networks with bipolar capacity," Electron. Lett. 31, 905-906 (1995).

Fiber Integr. Opt.

H. Hodara, E. Miles, J. Menders, W. Wells, "Secure fiberoptic communications," Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 47-61 (2003).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

G. S. Kanter, D. Reilly, N. Smith, "Practical physical-layer encryption: The marriage of optical noise with traditional cryptography," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 74-81 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

H. P. Yuen, "Key generation: Foundations and a new quantum approach," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1630-1645 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, S. Etemad, "Spectrally efficient six-user coherent OCDMA system using reconfigurable integrated ring resonator circuits," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1952-1954 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol.

F. Zhang, P. L. Chu, "Effect of transmission fiber on chaos communication system based on erbium-doped fiber ring laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3334-3343 (2003).

T. H. Shake, "Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1652-1663 (2005).

K. Ohhata, O. Hirota, M. Honda, S. Akutsu, Y. Doi, K. Harasawa, K. Yamashita, "10-Gb/s optical transceiver using the Yuen 2000 encryption protocol," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2714-2723 (2010).

H. Bulow, F. Buchali, A. Klekamp, "Electronic dispersion compensation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 158-167 (2008).

J. Modern Opt.

D. T. Pegg, S. M. Barnett, "Tutorial review: Quantum optical phase," J. Modern Opt. 44, 225-264 (1997).

J. Opt. Netw.

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B.

M. A. Dugan, J. X. Tull, W. S. Warren, "High-resolution acousto-optic shaping of femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 14, 2348-2358 (1997).

S. Gee, F. J. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, P. J. Delfyett, "Correlation of supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 24, 1490-1497 (2007).

A. Rundquist, A. Efimov, D. H. Reitze, "Pulse shaping with the Gerchberg–Saxton algorithm," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 19, 2468-2478 (2002).

J. Quantum Electron.

T. Yilmaz, C. M. Depriest, A. Braun, J. H. Abeles, P. J. Delfyett, "Noise in fundamental and harmonic mode-locked semiconductor lasers: Experiments and simulations," J. Quantum Electron. 39, 838-849 (2003).

Opt. Commun.

T. Tomaru, S. Sasaki, "Fiber transmissions of antisqueezed light for secure communications," Opt. Commun. 282, 1047-1051 (2009).

Phy. Lett. A

H. P. Yuen, A. M. Kim, "Classical noise-based cryptography similar to two-state quantum cryptography," Phy. Lett. A 241, 135-138 (1998).

Phys. Lett. A

H. P. Yuen, R. Nair, "On the security of Y-00 under fast correlation and other attacks on the key," Phys. Lett. A 364, 112-116 (2007).

Phys. Rev. A

R. Nair, H. P. Yuen, E. Corndorf, T. Eguchi, P. Kumar, "Quantum noise randomized ciphers," Phys. Rev. A 74, 052309-1-052309-13 (2006).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Scheuer, A. Yariv, "Giant fiber lasers: A new paradigm for secure key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 140502-1-140502-4 (2006).

Rev. Mod. Phys.

V. Scarani, H. Pasquinucci, N. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, M. Peev, "The security of practical quantum key distribution," Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301-1350 (2009).

Other

U. M. Mauerer, "Perfect crytographic security from partially independent channels," Proc. 23rd ACM Symp. Theory Comput. (1991) pp. 561-572.

N. Ferguson, B. Schneier, Practical Cryptography (Wiley, 2003).

G. Di Crescenzo, R. Menendez, S. Etemad, "OCDM-based photonic encryption with provable security guarantees," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTU-P3.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "320-Gb/s capacity (32 users$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA local area network testbed," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper PDP45.

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