Abstract

A wide-range frequency offset correction is an essential function in the coherent-detection optical (CO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. However, unlike conventional radio-frequency OFDM systems, the frequency offsets of CO systems come from the laser instability and bring much higher randomness and uncertainty between the local oscillation source and the incoming signal. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve low complexity and high precision for the frequency offset estimation at the same time. To fulfill the requirement of the CO-OFDM transmission system, we propose a novel algorithm using sample-shifted training symbols for the fast acquisition of the frequency offset in the CO-OFDM system. Based on the characteristics of optical coherency and the CO-OFDM symbol interval, the dynamic tracking of the frequency offset variation can also be simplified by using the OFDM pilot subcarriers.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, H. Tanaka, "121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000 km of SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 177-188 (2009).
  2. W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," IET Electron. Lett. 42, 587-589 (2006).
  3. A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).
  4. W. Shieh, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, "107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM transmission over 1000-km SSMF fiber using orthogonal band multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 16, 6378-6386 (2008).
  5. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).
  6. W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, Q. Yang, "Coherent optical OFDM: Has its time come?," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 234-255 (2008).
  7. D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, Y. Shao, J. Hu, T. Wang, "101.7-Tb/s (370$\,\times\,$294-Gb/2) PDM-128 QAM-OFDM transmission over 3$\,\times\,$55-km SSMF using pilot-based phase-noise mitigation," IEEE Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011) pp. 1-3.
  8. S. Attallah, "Blind estimation of residual carrier offset in OFDM systems," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 11, 216-219 (2004).
  9. S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, H. Tanaka, "100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM," Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 407-413 (2009).
  10. N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time 2.5 GS/s coherent optical receiver 53.3-Gbs/s sub-banded OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 494-500 (2010).
  11. S. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "Multi-gigabit real-time coherent optical OFDM receiver," IEEE Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009) pp. 1-3.
  12. T. Omiya, H. Goto, K. Kasai, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, "24 Gbit/s, 64 QAM-OFDM coherent transmission with a bandwidth of 2.5 GHz," IEEE Proc. ECOC (2009).
  13. P. H. Moose, "A technique for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing frequency offset correction," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2908-2914 (1994).
  14. J.-J. van de Beek, M. Sandell, P. O. Borjesson, "ML estimation of time and frequency offset in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 1800-1805 (1997).
  15. M. Morelli, U. Mengali, "An improved frequency offset estimator for OFDM applications," IEEE Commun. Lett. 3, 75-77 (1999).
  16. T. Keller, L. Piazzo, P. Mandarini, L. Hanzo, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing synchronization techniques for frequency-selective fading channels," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 19, 999-1008 (2001).
  17. C. Kuo, J.-F. Chang, "Generalized frequency offset estimation in OFDM systems using periodic training symbol," IEEE Proc. ICC 2005, Int. Conf. Commun. (2005) pp. 715-719.
  18. Z. Zhang, W. Jiang, H. Zhou, Y. Liu, J. Gao, "High accuracy frequency offset correction with adjustable acquisition range in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 4, 228-237 (2005).
  19. H.-K. Song, Y.-H. You, J.-H. Paik, Y.-S. Cho, "Frequency-offset synchronization and channel estimation for OFDM-based transmission," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 95-97 (2000).
  20. T. M. Schmidl, D. C. Cox, "Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
  21. G. Ren, Y. Chang, H. Zhang, H. Zhang, "An efficient frequency offset estimation method with a large range for wireless OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Vehic. Technol. 56, 1892-1895 (2007).
  22. H. Minn, V. K. Bhargava, K. B. Letaief, "A robust timing and frequency synchronization for OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 822-839 (2003).
  23. Z. Zhang, M. Zhao, H. Zhou, Y. Liu, J. Gao, "Frequency offset estimation with fast acquisition in OFDM system," IEEE Commun. Lett. 8, 171-173 (2004).
  24. A. B. Awoseyila, C. Kasparis, B. G. Evans, "Robust time-domain timing and frequency synchronization for OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 55, 391-399 (2009).
  25. C. Yan, S. Li, Y. Tang, X. Luo, J. Fang, "A novel frequency offset estimation method for OFDM systems with large estimation range," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 52, 58-61 (2006).
  26. F. Yang, Z. Zhang, Y. Chen, "Maximal-likelihood estimator for coarse carrier frequency offset estimation in OFDM systems," Wireless. Pers. Commun. 49, 55-66 (2009).
  27. I.-H. Chung, M.-C. Yen, "On the performance of a maximum likelihood method with delayed correlation for the coarse carrier frequency offset estimation of OFDM signals with multiple preamble symbols," Wireless Netw. 16, 641-657 (2010).
  28. T. Pollet, M. Van Bladel, M. Moeneclaey, "BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 191-193 (1995).
  29. K. Sathananthan, C. Tellamura, "Performance analysis of an OFDM system with carrier frequency offset and phase noise," IEEE Proc. VTC 2001, Vehicular Technology Conf. 54th (2001) pp. 2329-2332.
  30. M. Luise, R. Reggiannini, "Carrier frequency acquisition and tracking for OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 44, 1590-1598 (1996).
  31. D. C. Rife, R. R. Boorstyn, "Single-tone parameter estimation from discrete-time observations," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-20, 594-598 (1974).
  32. X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 919-921 (2007).

2010 (2)

N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time 2.5 GS/s coherent optical receiver 53.3-Gbs/s sub-banded OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 494-500 (2010).

I.-H. Chung, M.-C. Yen, "On the performance of a maximum likelihood method with delayed correlation for the coarse carrier frequency offset estimation of OFDM signals with multiple preamble symbols," Wireless Netw. 16, 641-657 (2010).

2009 (5)

A. B. Awoseyila, C. Kasparis, B. G. Evans, "Robust time-domain timing and frequency synchronization for OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 55, 391-399 (2009).

F. Yang, Z. Zhang, Y. Chen, "Maximal-likelihood estimator for coarse carrier frequency offset estimation in OFDM systems," Wireless. Pers. Commun. 49, 55-66 (2009).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, H. Tanaka, "121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000 km of SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 177-188 (2009).

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).

S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, H. Tanaka, "100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM," Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 407-413 (2009).

2008 (3)

W. Shieh, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, "107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM transmission over 1000-km SSMF fiber using orthogonal band multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 16, 6378-6386 (2008).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, Q. Yang, "Coherent optical OFDM: Has its time come?," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 234-255 (2008).

2007 (2)

G. Ren, Y. Chang, H. Zhang, H. Zhang, "An efficient frequency offset estimation method with a large range for wireless OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Vehic. Technol. 56, 1892-1895 (2007).

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 919-921 (2007).

2006 (2)

C. Yan, S. Li, Y. Tang, X. Luo, J. Fang, "A novel frequency offset estimation method for OFDM systems with large estimation range," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 52, 58-61 (2006).

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," IET Electron. Lett. 42, 587-589 (2006).

2005 (1)

Z. Zhang, W. Jiang, H. Zhou, Y. Liu, J. Gao, "High accuracy frequency offset correction with adjustable acquisition range in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 4, 228-237 (2005).

2004 (2)

S. Attallah, "Blind estimation of residual carrier offset in OFDM systems," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 11, 216-219 (2004).

Z. Zhang, M. Zhao, H. Zhou, Y. Liu, J. Gao, "Frequency offset estimation with fast acquisition in OFDM system," IEEE Commun. Lett. 8, 171-173 (2004).

2003 (1)

H. Minn, V. K. Bhargava, K. B. Letaief, "A robust timing and frequency synchronization for OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 822-839 (2003).

2001 (1)

T. Keller, L. Piazzo, P. Mandarini, L. Hanzo, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing synchronization techniques for frequency-selective fading channels," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 19, 999-1008 (2001).

2000 (1)

H.-K. Song, Y.-H. You, J.-H. Paik, Y.-S. Cho, "Frequency-offset synchronization and channel estimation for OFDM-based transmission," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 95-97 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. Morelli, U. Mengali, "An improved frequency offset estimator for OFDM applications," IEEE Commun. Lett. 3, 75-77 (1999).

1997 (2)

J.-J. van de Beek, M. Sandell, P. O. Borjesson, "ML estimation of time and frequency offset in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 1800-1805 (1997).

T. M. Schmidl, D. C. Cox, "Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).

1996 (1)

M. Luise, R. Reggiannini, "Carrier frequency acquisition and tracking for OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 44, 1590-1598 (1996).

1995 (1)

T. Pollet, M. Van Bladel, M. Moeneclaey, "BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 191-193 (1995).

1994 (1)

P. H. Moose, "A technique for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing frequency offset correction," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2908-2914 (1994).

1974 (1)

D. C. Rife, R. R. Boorstyn, "Single-tone parameter estimation from discrete-time observations," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-20, 594-598 (1974).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

H.-K. Song, Y.-H. You, J.-H. Paik, Y.-S. Cho, "Frequency-offset synchronization and channel estimation for OFDM-based transmission," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 95-97 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

T. Pollet, M. Van Bladel, M. Moeneclaey, "BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 191-193 (1995).

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

A. B. Awoseyila, C. Kasparis, B. G. Evans, "Robust time-domain timing and frequency synchronization for OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 55, 391-399 (2009).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

M. Morelli, U. Mengali, "An improved frequency offset estimator for OFDM applications," IEEE Commun. Lett. 3, 75-77 (1999).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

Z. Zhang, M. Zhao, H. Zhou, Y. Liu, J. Gao, "Frequency offset estimation with fast acquisition in OFDM system," IEEE Commun. Lett. 8, 171-173 (2004).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

T. Keller, L. Piazzo, P. Mandarini, L. Hanzo, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing synchronization techniques for frequency-selective fading channels," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 19, 999-1008 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 919-921 (2007).

IEEE Signal Process. Lett. (1)

S. Attallah, "Blind estimation of residual carrier offset in OFDM systems," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 11, 216-219 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

M. Luise, R. Reggiannini, "Carrier frequency acquisition and tracking for OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 44, 1590-1598 (1996).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

D. C. Rife, R. R. Boorstyn, "Single-tone parameter estimation from discrete-time observations," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-20, 594-598 (1974).

IEEE Trans. Vehic. Technol. (1)

G. Ren, Y. Chang, H. Zhang, H. Zhang, "An efficient frequency offset estimation method with a large range for wireless OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Vehic. Technol. 56, 1892-1895 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (1)

H. Minn, V. K. Bhargava, K. B. Letaief, "A robust timing and frequency synchronization for OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 822-839 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Broadcast. (1)

C. Yan, S. Li, Y. Tang, X. Luo, J. Fang, "A novel frequency offset estimation method for OFDM systems with large estimation range," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 52, 58-61 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

P. H. Moose, "A technique for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing frequency offset correction," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2908-2914 (1994).

T. M. Schmidl, D. C. Cox, "Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

J.-J. van de Beek, M. Sandell, P. O. Borjesson, "ML estimation of time and frequency offset in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 1800-1805 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (1)

Z. Zhang, W. Jiang, H. Zhou, Y. Liu, J. Gao, "High accuracy frequency offset correction with adjustable acquisition range in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 4, 228-237 (2005).

IET Electron. Lett. (1)

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," IET Electron. Lett. 42, 587-589 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time 2.5 GS/s coherent optical receiver 53.3-Gbs/s sub-banded OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 494-500 (2010).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, H. Tanaka, "121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000 km of SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 177-188 (2009).

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Exp. (1)

W. Shieh, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, "107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM transmission over 1000-km SSMF fiber using orthogonal band multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 16, 6378-6386 (2008).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, H. Tanaka, "100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM," Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 407-413 (2009).

Wireless Netw. (1)

I.-H. Chung, M.-C. Yen, "On the performance of a maximum likelihood method with delayed correlation for the coarse carrier frequency offset estimation of OFDM signals with multiple preamble symbols," Wireless Netw. 16, 641-657 (2010).

Wireless. Pers. Commun. (1)

F. Yang, Z. Zhang, Y. Chen, "Maximal-likelihood estimator for coarse carrier frequency offset estimation in OFDM systems," Wireless. Pers. Commun. 49, 55-66 (2009).

Other (5)

K. Sathananthan, C. Tellamura, "Performance analysis of an OFDM system with carrier frequency offset and phase noise," IEEE Proc. VTC 2001, Vehicular Technology Conf. 54th (2001) pp. 2329-2332.

S. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "Multi-gigabit real-time coherent optical OFDM receiver," IEEE Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009) pp. 1-3.

T. Omiya, H. Goto, K. Kasai, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, "24 Gbit/s, 64 QAM-OFDM coherent transmission with a bandwidth of 2.5 GHz," IEEE Proc. ECOC (2009).

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, Y. Shao, J. Hu, T. Wang, "101.7-Tb/s (370$\,\times\,$294-Gb/2) PDM-128 QAM-OFDM transmission over 3$\,\times\,$55-km SSMF using pilot-based phase-noise mitigation," IEEE Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011) pp. 1-3.

C. Kuo, J.-F. Chang, "Generalized frequency offset estimation in OFDM systems using periodic training symbol," IEEE Proc. ICC 2005, Int. Conf. Commun. (2005) pp. 715-719.

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