Abstract

We investigate numerically and analytically the propagation characteristics of gain-guided modes in index-antiguided planar waveguides. We show that the gain-guided mode has modal confinement proportional to the modal gain, and single-transverse mode propagation is very robust in such waveguides. The power evolution of the fundamental mode can be described analytically with very good accuracy. Limiting power and optimum length of the waveguide amplifiers can also be obtained analytically.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. J. I. Mackenzie, "Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 626-637 (2007).
  2. D. P. Shepherd, S. J. Hettrick, C. Li, J. I. Mackenzie, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, H. E. Meissner, "High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers," J. Phys. D—Appl. Phys. 34, 2420-2432 (2001).
  3. C. L. Bonner, T. Bhutta, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, "Double-clad structures and proximity coupling for diode-bar-pumped planar waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 236-242 (2000).
  4. J. I. Mackenzie, C. Li, D. P. Shepherd, H. E. Meissner, S. C. Mitchell, "Longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YAG double-clad planar waveguide laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 698-700 (2001).
  5. S. J. Hettrick, J. I. Mackenzie, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, "Ion-exchanged tapered-waveguide laser in neodymium-doped BK7 glass," Opt. Lett. 25, 1433-1435 (2000).
  6. K. Du, N. Wu, J. Xu, J. Giesekus, P. Loosen, R. Poprawe, "Partially end-pumped Nd:YAG slab laser with a hybrid resonator," Opt. Lett. 23, 370-372 (1998).
  7. R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, H. E. Meissner, O. R. Meissner, W. F. Krupke, J. M. McMahan, W. J. Bennett, D. P. Shepherd, "Continuous-wave and passively $Q$-switched cladding-pumped planar waveguide lasers," Opt. Lett. 26, 881-883 (2001).
  8. I. McKinnie, W. S. Pelouch, D. D. Smith, J. E. Koroshetz, J. R. Unternahrer, S. W. Henderson, W. R. Scharpf, "Self-imaging in waveguide lasers and amplifiers," Proc. Adv. Solid-State Photonics (2002) pp. MA2.
  9. H. Baker, J. Lee, D. Hall, "Self-imaging and high-beam-quality operation in multi-mode planar waveguide optical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 10, 297-302 (2002).
  10. W. Liang, Y. Xu, J. M. Choi, A. Yariv, "Engineering transverse Bragg resonance waveguides for large modal volume lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 2079-2081 (2003).
  11. L. Zhu, X. Sun, G. A. DeRose, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, "Spatial modal control of two-dimensional photonic crystal Bragg lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 2273-2275 (2007).
  12. A. Kumar, V. Rastogi, K. S. Chiang, "Leaky optical waveguide for high power applications," Appl. Phys. B—Lasers Opt. 85, 11-16 (2006).
  13. A. E. Siegman, "Propagating modes in gain-guided optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A—Optics Image Sci. Vis. 20, 1617-1628 (2003).
  14. A. E. Siegman, "Gain-guided, index-antiguided fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B—Opt. Phys. 24, 1677-1682 (2007).
  15. T.-H. Her, X. Ao, L. W. Casperson, "Gain saturation in gain-guided slab waveguides with large-index antiguiding," Opt. Lett. 34, 2411-2413 (2009).
  16. H. S. Kim, M. C. Richardson, "Output characteristic of a gain guided, index antiguided fiber amplifier under the condition of gain saturation," Opt. Exp. 17, 15969-15974 (2009).
  17. F. Caccavale, F. Segato, I. Mansour, "A numerical study of erbium doped active LiNbO$_3$ waveguides by the beam propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 2294-2300 (1997).
  18. J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves," J. Computat. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
  19. S. Konno, S. Fujikawa, K. Yasui, "206 W continuous-wave TEM[sub 00] mode 1064 nm beam generation by a laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2696-2697 (2001).
  20. T. H. Allik, W. W. Hovis, D. P. Caffey, V. King, "Efficient diode-array-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:Lu:YAG lasers," Opt. Lett. 14, 116-118 (1989).
  21. B. E. Callicoatt, M. Tartaglia, I. T. McKinnie, C. Wood, J. R. Unternahrer, "Single-frequency 133 W CW self-imaging Nd:YAG waveguide power amplifier," Proc. Advanced Solid-State Photonics (2005) pp. TuC2.
  22. W. W. Rigrod, "Gain saturation and output power of optical masers," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2602-2609 (1963).
  23. L. W. Casperson, "Laser power calculations—Sources of error," Appl. Opt. 19, 422-434 (1980).
  24. Y. Chen, T. McComb, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, "Very large-core, single-mode, gain-guided, index-antiguided fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 2505-2507 (2007).
  25. R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology (Springer-Verlag, 2009).

2009 (2)

H. S. Kim, M. C. Richardson, "Output characteristic of a gain guided, index antiguided fiber amplifier under the condition of gain saturation," Opt. Exp. 17, 15969-15974 (2009).

T.-H. Her, X. Ao, L. W. Casperson, "Gain saturation in gain-guided slab waveguides with large-index antiguiding," Opt. Lett. 34, 2411-2413 (2009).

2007 (4)

L. Zhu, X. Sun, G. A. DeRose, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, "Spatial modal control of two-dimensional photonic crystal Bragg lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 2273-2275 (2007).

Y. Chen, T. McComb, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, "Very large-core, single-mode, gain-guided, index-antiguided fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 2505-2507 (2007).

A. E. Siegman, "Gain-guided, index-antiguided fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B—Opt. Phys. 24, 1677-1682 (2007).

J. I. Mackenzie, "Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 626-637 (2007).

2006 (1)

A. Kumar, V. Rastogi, K. S. Chiang, "Leaky optical waveguide for high power applications," Appl. Phys. B—Lasers Opt. 85, 11-16 (2006).

2003 (2)

A. E. Siegman, "Propagating modes in gain-guided optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A—Optics Image Sci. Vis. 20, 1617-1628 (2003).

W. Liang, Y. Xu, J. M. Choi, A. Yariv, "Engineering transverse Bragg resonance waveguides for large modal volume lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 2079-2081 (2003).

2002 (1)

H. Baker, J. Lee, D. Hall, "Self-imaging and high-beam-quality operation in multi-mode planar waveguide optical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 10, 297-302 (2002).

2001 (4)

D. P. Shepherd, S. J. Hettrick, C. Li, J. I. Mackenzie, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, H. E. Meissner, "High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers," J. Phys. D—Appl. Phys. 34, 2420-2432 (2001).

S. Konno, S. Fujikawa, K. Yasui, "206 W continuous-wave TEM[sub 00] mode 1064 nm beam generation by a laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2696-2697 (2001).

J. I. Mackenzie, C. Li, D. P. Shepherd, H. E. Meissner, S. C. Mitchell, "Longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YAG double-clad planar waveguide laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 698-700 (2001).

R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, H. E. Meissner, O. R. Meissner, W. F. Krupke, J. M. McMahan, W. J. Bennett, D. P. Shepherd, "Continuous-wave and passively $Q$-switched cladding-pumped planar waveguide lasers," Opt. Lett. 26, 881-883 (2001).

2000 (2)

S. J. Hettrick, J. I. Mackenzie, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, "Ion-exchanged tapered-waveguide laser in neodymium-doped BK7 glass," Opt. Lett. 25, 1433-1435 (2000).

C. L. Bonner, T. Bhutta, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, "Double-clad structures and proximity coupling for diode-bar-pumped planar waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 236-242 (2000).

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

F. Caccavale, F. Segato, I. Mansour, "A numerical study of erbium doped active LiNbO$_3$ waveguides by the beam propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 2294-2300 (1997).

1994 (1)

J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves," J. Computat. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).

1989 (1)

1980 (1)

1963 (1)

W. W. Rigrod, "Gain saturation and output power of optical masers," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2602-2609 (1963).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B—Lasers Opt. (1)

A. Kumar, V. Rastogi, K. S. Chiang, "Leaky optical waveguide for high power applications," Appl. Phys. B—Lasers Opt. 85, 11-16 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Konno, S. Fujikawa, K. Yasui, "206 W continuous-wave TEM[sub 00] mode 1064 nm beam generation by a laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2696-2697 (2001).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. L. Bonner, T. Bhutta, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, "Double-clad structures and proximity coupling for diode-bar-pumped planar waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 236-242 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J. I. Mackenzie, "Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 626-637 (2007).

J. Computat. Phys. (1)

J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves," J. Computat. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

F. Caccavale, F. Segato, I. Mansour, "A numerical study of erbium doped active LiNbO$_3$ waveguides by the beam propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 2294-2300 (1997).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. W. Rigrod, "Gain saturation and output power of optical masers," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2602-2609 (1963).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A—Optics Image Sci. Vis. (1)

A. E. Siegman, "Propagating modes in gain-guided optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A—Optics Image Sci. Vis. 20, 1617-1628 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B—Opt. Phys. (1)

A. E. Siegman, "Gain-guided, index-antiguided fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B—Opt. Phys. 24, 1677-1682 (2007).

J. Phys. D—Appl. Phys. (1)

D. P. Shepherd, S. J. Hettrick, C. Li, J. I. Mackenzie, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, H. E. Meissner, "High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers," J. Phys. D—Appl. Phys. 34, 2420-2432 (2001).

Opt. Exp. (2)

H. Baker, J. Lee, D. Hall, "Self-imaging and high-beam-quality operation in multi-mode planar waveguide optical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 10, 297-302 (2002).

H. S. Kim, M. C. Richardson, "Output characteristic of a gain guided, index antiguided fiber amplifier under the condition of gain saturation," Opt. Exp. 17, 15969-15974 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (9)

T. H. Allik, W. W. Hovis, D. P. Caffey, V. King, "Efficient diode-array-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:Lu:YAG lasers," Opt. Lett. 14, 116-118 (1989).

T.-H. Her, X. Ao, L. W. Casperson, "Gain saturation in gain-guided slab waveguides with large-index antiguiding," Opt. Lett. 34, 2411-2413 (2009).

W. Liang, Y. Xu, J. M. Choi, A. Yariv, "Engineering transverse Bragg resonance waveguides for large modal volume lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 2079-2081 (2003).

L. Zhu, X. Sun, G. A. DeRose, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, "Spatial modal control of two-dimensional photonic crystal Bragg lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 2273-2275 (2007).

J. I. Mackenzie, C. Li, D. P. Shepherd, H. E. Meissner, S. C. Mitchell, "Longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YAG double-clad planar waveguide laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 698-700 (2001).

S. J. Hettrick, J. I. Mackenzie, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, "Ion-exchanged tapered-waveguide laser in neodymium-doped BK7 glass," Opt. Lett. 25, 1433-1435 (2000).

K. Du, N. Wu, J. Xu, J. Giesekus, P. Loosen, R. Poprawe, "Partially end-pumped Nd:YAG slab laser with a hybrid resonator," Opt. Lett. 23, 370-372 (1998).

R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, H. E. Meissner, O. R. Meissner, W. F. Krupke, J. M. McMahan, W. J. Bennett, D. P. Shepherd, "Continuous-wave and passively $Q$-switched cladding-pumped planar waveguide lasers," Opt. Lett. 26, 881-883 (2001).

Y. Chen, T. McComb, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, "Very large-core, single-mode, gain-guided, index-antiguided fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 2505-2507 (2007).

Other (3)

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology (Springer-Verlag, 2009).

I. McKinnie, W. S. Pelouch, D. D. Smith, J. E. Koroshetz, J. R. Unternahrer, S. W. Henderson, W. R. Scharpf, "Self-imaging in waveguide lasers and amplifiers," Proc. Adv. Solid-State Photonics (2002) pp. MA2.

B. E. Callicoatt, M. Tartaglia, I. T. McKinnie, C. Wood, J. R. Unternahrer, "Single-frequency 133 W CW self-imaging Nd:YAG waveguide power amplifier," Proc. Advanced Solid-State Photonics (2005) pp. TuC2.

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