Abstract

Most of the previous research on data centers power consumption has focused on understanding how to minimize the power consumption inside the data center. It is, however, also important to investigate the power consumption associated with transporting data between data centers and end users. In this paper, we consider three problems. First, through linear programming (LP) models and through simulations we determine the optimal location of a data center or multiple data centers in an IP over wavelength-division-multiplexing network so as to minimize the network's power consumption. Here, we consider the impact of network topology, traffic profile, upload and download rates, number of data centers and the impact of power minimization on delay. Second, we study how to replicate content that has different popularity to minimize power consumption through the use of an LP model. Here, we consider five classes (but the models are general) of content that have different levels of popularity and consider multiple data centers. The optimization attempts to identify where to store a data object that has a given popularity such that the network's power consumption is minimized. We have also developed a novel routing algorithm, energy-delay optimal routing, to minimize the power consumption of the network under replication while maintaining QoS. Third, we investigate through LP the problem of whether to locate data centers next to renewable energy or to transmit renewable energy to data centers in a given network topology under different traffic conditions and taking into account the network components' power consumption. Given a number of wind Farms whose locations are known together with the electrical power transmission losses, we identify the optimal location of data centers such that the network's power consumption is minimized and consider a network where the nodes that are not connected to wind farms have access to solar power. The results show that by identifying the optimum data center locations, combining the multi-hop bypass heuristic with renewable energy and the replication scheme, power consumption savings of up to 73% can be achieved.

© 2011 IEEE

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References

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  1. B. Moore, "Taking the data center power and cooling challenge," Energy User News (2002).
  2. F. Moore, "More power needed," Energy User News (2002).
  3. IEEE 802.3 Energy Efficient Ethernet Study Group http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3/eee_study/index.html.
  4. "Where does power go?," Green Data Journal (2008) http://www.greendataproject.org/.
  5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Data Center Report to Congress. http://tinyurl.com/2jz3ft.
  6. B. Heller, S. Seetharaman, P. Mahadevan, Y. Yiakoumis, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, N. McKeown, "ElasticTree: Saving energy in data centre networks," USENIX NSDI (2010).
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  8. G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, "Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks," Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, 176-186 (2009).
  9. T. Loukopoulos, I. Ahmad, "Static and adaptive data replication algorithms for fast information access in large distributed systems," IEEE Int. Conf. Distrib. Comput. Syst. (2000) pp. 385-392.
  10. M. Rabinovich, I. Rabinovich, R. Rajaraman, A. Aggarwal, "A dynamic object replication and migration protocol for an internet hosting service," IEEE Int. Conf. Distrib. Comput. Syst. (1999) pp. 101-113.
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  13. P. Ferreira, "Optical networks and the future broadband services," Technol. Forecast. Social Change J. 69, 741-758 (2002).
  14. A. Lodha, "CAVALIER architecture for metro data center networking," Broadband Commun., Netw. Syst., 2008. BROADNETS (2008) pp. 169-174.
  15. Z. Sun, D. He, L. Liang, H. Cruickshank, "Internet QoS and traffic modeling," IEE Proc.-Softw. (2004) pp. 248-255.
  16. Y. Chen, C. Chou, "Traffic modelling of a sub-network by using ARIMA," Info-Tech Info-Net, Proc., ICII-2001 pp. 730-735.
  17. Youtube Fact Sheet, Traffic and Stats http://www.youtube.com/t/fact_sheet.
  18. Cisco CRS-1 Specification Data Sheet http://www.cisco.com.
  19. X. G. Paneda, R. Garcia, D. Melendi, M. Vilas, V. Garcia, "Popularity analysis of a video-on-demand service with a great variety of content types. Influence of the subject and video characteristics," AINA'06: Proc. 20th Int. Conf. Adv. Inf. Netw. Appl. (2006) pp. 29-34.
  20. Z. Xiang, Q. Zhang, W. Zhu, Z. Zhang, Y.-Q. Zhang, "Peer-to-peer based multimedia distribution service," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 6, 343-355 (2004).
  21. L. Breslau, C. Pei, F. Li, G. Philips, S. Shenker, "Web caching and Zipf-like distributions: Evidence and implications," INFOCOM 1999 pp. 126-134.
  22. J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. P. Altermatt, S. R. Wenham, M. A. Green, "24% Efficient silicon solar cells," Photovoltaic Energy Convers., 24th. IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (1994) pp. 1477-1480.
  23. AWEA 3rd Quarter 2008 Market Report http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/3Q08.pdf.
  24. Drilling Down: What Projects Made 2008 Such a Banner Year for Wind Power? http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2009/02/drilling-down-what-projects-made-2008-such-a-banner-year-for-wind-power?cmpid=WNL-Friday-February27-2009.
  25. H. Wang, H. Yang, H. Wu, "A fine model for evaluating output performance of crystalline silicon solar modules," Photovoltaic Energy Convers., IEEE 4th World Conf. (2006) pp. 2189-2192.
  26. M. Rabinowitz, "Advanced power transmission of the future," Power Eng. Rev. 20, 5 (2003).
  27. Lawrence Berkeley National Labs, Benchmarking: Data Centers (2007) http://hightech.lbl.gov/benchmarkingdc-charts.html.

2011 (1)

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "IP over WDM networks employing renewable energy sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 3-14 (2011).

2009 (1)

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, "Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks," Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, 176-186 (2009).

2008 (1)

"Where does power go?," Green Data Journal (2008) http://www.greendataproject.org/.

2004 (1)

Z. Xiang, Q. Zhang, W. Zhu, Z. Zhang, Y.-Q. Zhang, "Peer-to-peer based multimedia distribution service," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 6, 343-355 (2004).

2003 (1)

M. Rabinowitz, "Advanced power transmission of the future," Power Eng. Rev. 20, 5 (2003).

2002 (3)

P. Ferreira, "Optical networks and the future broadband services," Technol. Forecast. Social Change J. 69, 741-758 (2002).

B. Moore, "Taking the data center power and cooling challenge," Energy User News (2002).

F. Moore, "More power needed," Energy User News (2002).

1997 (1)

O. Wolfson, S. Jajodia, Y. Huang, "An adaptive data replication algorithm," ACM Trans. Database Syst. 22, 255-314 (1997).

ACM Trans. Database Syst. (1)

O. Wolfson, S. Jajodia, Y. Huang, "An adaptive data replication algorithm," ACM Trans. Database Syst. 22, 255-314 (1997).

Energy User News (2)

B. Moore, "Taking the data center power and cooling challenge," Energy User News (2002).

F. Moore, "More power needed," Energy User News (2002).

Green Data Journal (1)

"Where does power go?," Green Data Journal (2008) http://www.greendataproject.org/.

IEEE Trans. Multimedia (1)

Z. Xiang, Q. Zhang, W. Zhu, Z. Zhang, Y.-Q. Zhang, "Peer-to-peer based multimedia distribution service," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 6, 343-355 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "IP over WDM networks employing renewable energy sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 3-14 (2011).

Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, "Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks," Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, 176-186 (2009).

Power Eng. Rev. (1)

M. Rabinowitz, "Advanced power transmission of the future," Power Eng. Rev. 20, 5 (2003).

Technol. Forecast. Social Change J. (1)

P. Ferreira, "Optical networks and the future broadband services," Technol. Forecast. Social Change J. 69, 741-758 (2002).

Other (18)

A. Lodha, "CAVALIER architecture for metro data center networking," Broadband Commun., Netw. Syst., 2008. BROADNETS (2008) pp. 169-174.

Z. Sun, D. He, L. Liang, H. Cruickshank, "Internet QoS and traffic modeling," IEE Proc.-Softw. (2004) pp. 248-255.

Y. Chen, C. Chou, "Traffic modelling of a sub-network by using ARIMA," Info-Tech Info-Net, Proc., ICII-2001 pp. 730-735.

Youtube Fact Sheet, Traffic and Stats http://www.youtube.com/t/fact_sheet.

Cisco CRS-1 Specification Data Sheet http://www.cisco.com.

X. G. Paneda, R. Garcia, D. Melendi, M. Vilas, V. Garcia, "Popularity analysis of a video-on-demand service with a great variety of content types. Influence of the subject and video characteristics," AINA'06: Proc. 20th Int. Conf. Adv. Inf. Netw. Appl. (2006) pp. 29-34.

T. Loukopoulos, I. Ahmad, "Static and adaptive data replication algorithms for fast information access in large distributed systems," IEEE Int. Conf. Distrib. Comput. Syst. (2000) pp. 385-392.

M. Rabinovich, I. Rabinovich, R. Rajaraman, A. Aggarwal, "A dynamic object replication and migration protocol for an internet hosting service," IEEE Int. Conf. Distrib. Comput. Syst. (1999) pp. 101-113.

IEEE 802.3 Energy Efficient Ethernet Study Group http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3/eee_study/index.html.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Data Center Report to Congress. http://tinyurl.com/2jz3ft.

B. Heller, S. Seetharaman, P. Mahadevan, Y. Yiakoumis, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, N. McKeown, "ElasticTree: Saving energy in data centre networks," USENIX NSDI (2010).

Wind Farms to Power BT (2009) pp. 4305 http://www.btplc.com/sharesandperformance/Annualreportandreview/Shareholdermagazine/May2009/windfarms.htm?Terms=380 BT Website.

Lawrence Berkeley National Labs, Benchmarking: Data Centers (2007) http://hightech.lbl.gov/benchmarkingdc-charts.html.

L. Breslau, C. Pei, F. Li, G. Philips, S. Shenker, "Web caching and Zipf-like distributions: Evidence and implications," INFOCOM 1999 pp. 126-134.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. P. Altermatt, S. R. Wenham, M. A. Green, "24% Efficient silicon solar cells," Photovoltaic Energy Convers., 24th. IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (1994) pp. 1477-1480.

AWEA 3rd Quarter 2008 Market Report http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/3Q08.pdf.

Drilling Down: What Projects Made 2008 Such a Banner Year for Wind Power? http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2009/02/drilling-down-what-projects-made-2008-such-a-banner-year-for-wind-power?cmpid=WNL-Friday-February27-2009.

H. Wang, H. Yang, H. Wu, "A fine model for evaluating output performance of crystalline silicon solar modules," Photovoltaic Energy Convers., IEEE 4th World Conf. (2006) pp. 2189-2192.

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