Abstract

The ultimate goal of silicon photonics development is the monolithical integration of a photonic layer with optical functions onto silicon IC chips. This 3-D stacking can be obtained by wafer-to-wafer bonding leading to the photonic layers to be embedded into the last levels of metalization above the IC layer. We present a method that takes advantage of this integration process in order to realize enhanced fiber grating couplers. Indeed, grating structures are very attractive to couple the light between tiny silicon wires to the external world, which is dominated by optical fibers. Moreover, the insertion of a mirror below the grating is a well-known solution to increase significantly the coupling efficiency. We propose a method to obtain this bottom mirror by anticipating the grating coupler flip due to the wafer-to-wafer bonding. To this end, the mirror is formed above the encapsulation layer of the fiber grating coupler in order to appear below it after the optical layers integration onto an IC wafer. In this way, the thickness between the grating and the bottom mirror, which is a very sensitive parameter, remains under control whatever wafer-to-wafer bonding process tolerances. Experimental results with one single silicon layer as a bottom mirror exhibit coupling efficiency up to 69%.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. J. M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, C. Seassal, L. Vivien, "Integration issues of a photonic layer on top of a CMOS circuit," Proc. SPIE 6125, 97-111 (2006).
  2. J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, R. Orobtchouk, P. Rojo-Romeo, C. Seassal, F. Mandorlo, "Development of silicon photonics devices using microelectronic tools for the integration on top of a CMOS wafer," Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 15 (2008) Art. ID 412518.
  3. R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, G. Priem, G. Morthier, P. Bienstman, D. Van-Thourhout, "Silicon-on-insulator based nano-photonics: Why, how, what for," Proc. IEEE 2nd Int. Conf. Group IV 05EX1053 (2005) pp. 168-170.
  4. R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, G. Priem, G. Morthier, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, "Silicon-on-insulator based nano-photonics: Why, how, what for?," Proc. IEEE 2nd Int. Conf. Group IV Photon. (2005) pp. 168-170.
  5. J. M. Fedeli, M. Migette, L. Di Cioccio, L. El Melhaoui, R. Orobtchouk, C. Seassal, P. RojoRomeo, F. Mandorlo, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, "Incorporation of a photonic layer at the metallizations levels of a CMOS circuit," Proc. IEEE 3rd Int. Conf. Group IV Photon. (2006) pp. 200-202.
  6. T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, "Monolithically integrated high-speed CMOS photonic transceivers," Proc. IEEE 5th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon. (2008) pp. 362-364.
  7. J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, D. Van Thourhout, P. Viktorovitch, I. O'Connor, G. H. Duan, G. Reed, F. Della Corte, L. Vivien, F. L. Royo, L. Pavesi, B. Garrido, E. Grard, B. Tillack, L. Zimmermann, S. Formont, A. Hakansson, E. Wachmann, H. Zimmermann, A. Bakker, H. Porte, "HELIOS: Photonics electronics functional integration on CMOS," presented at the SPIE, vol. 7719 BrusselsBelgium (2010).
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  15. D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, "High-efficiency silicon-on-insulator fiber-to-chip grating couplers using a silicon overlay," Opt. Exp. 18, 18278-18283 (2010).
  16. X. Chen, C. Lia, H. K. Tsang, "Two dimensional silicon waveguide chirped grating couplers for vertical optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 283, 2146-2149 (2010).

2010 (2)

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, "High-efficiency silicon-on-insulator fiber-to-chip grating couplers using a silicon overlay," Opt. Exp. 18, 18278-18283 (2010).

X. Chen, C. Lia, H. K. Tsang, "Two dimensional silicon waveguide chirped grating couplers for vertical optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 283, 2146-2149 (2010).

2009 (1)

C. Kopp, A. Chelnokov, "Fiber grating couplers for silicon nanophotonic circuits: Design modeling methodology and fabrication tolerances," Opt. Commun. 282, 4242-4248 (2009).

2008 (1)

J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, R. Orobtchouk, P. Rojo-Romeo, C. Seassal, F. Mandorlo, "Development of silicon photonics devices using microelectronic tools for the integration on top of a CMOS wafer," Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 15 (2008) Art. ID 412518.

2006 (2)

J. M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, C. Seassal, L. Vivien, "Integration issues of a photonic layer on top of a CMOS circuit," Proc. SPIE 6125, 97-111 (2006).

D. Taillaert, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibres and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).

2000 (1)

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, R. Orobtchouk, P. Rojo-Romeo, C. Seassal, F. Mandorlo, "Development of silicon photonics devices using microelectronic tools for the integration on top of a CMOS wafer," Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 15 (2008) Art. ID 412518.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. Dobbelaere, "A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. .

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Taillaert, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibres and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Chen, C. Lia, H. K. Tsang, "Two dimensional silicon waveguide chirped grating couplers for vertical optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 283, 2146-2149 (2010).

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Kopp, A. Chelnokov, "Fiber grating couplers for silicon nanophotonic circuits: Design modeling methodology and fabrication tolerances," Opt. Commun. 282, 4242-4248 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (1)

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, "High-efficiency silicon-on-insulator fiber-to-chip grating couplers using a silicon overlay," Opt. Exp. 18, 18278-18283 (2010).

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, C. Seassal, L. Vivien, "Integration issues of a photonic layer on top of a CMOS circuit," Proc. SPIE 6125, 97-111 (2006).

Other (8)

http://www.epixfab.eu/.

R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, G. Priem, G. Morthier, P. Bienstman, D. Van-Thourhout, "Silicon-on-insulator based nano-photonics: Why, how, what for," Proc. IEEE 2nd Int. Conf. Group IV 05EX1053 (2005) pp. 168-170.

R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, G. Priem, G. Morthier, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, "Silicon-on-insulator based nano-photonics: Why, how, what for?," Proc. IEEE 2nd Int. Conf. Group IV Photon. (2005) pp. 168-170.

J. M. Fedeli, M. Migette, L. Di Cioccio, L. El Melhaoui, R. Orobtchouk, C. Seassal, P. RojoRomeo, F. Mandorlo, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, "Incorporation of a photonic layer at the metallizations levels of a CMOS circuit," Proc. IEEE 3rd Int. Conf. Group IV Photon. (2006) pp. 200-202.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, "Monolithically integrated high-speed CMOS photonic transceivers," Proc. IEEE 5th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon. (2008) pp. 362-364.

J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, D. Van Thourhout, P. Viktorovitch, I. O'Connor, G. H. Duan, G. Reed, F. Della Corte, L. Vivien, F. L. Royo, L. Pavesi, B. Garrido, E. Grard, B. Tillack, L. Zimmermann, S. Formont, A. Hakansson, E. Wachmann, H. Zimmermann, A. Bakker, H. Porte, "HELIOS: Photonics electronics functional integration on CMOS," presented at the SPIE, vol. 7719 BrusselsBelgium (2010).

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Compact grating couplers between optical fibers and silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides with 69% coupling efficiency," presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (2006) Paper PDP15.

J. M. Fedeli, "Si and InP integration in the HELIOS project," Proc. 35th Eur. Conf. on Opt. Commun. (2009) pp. 3.

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