Abstract

The mode-coupling processes of long-period gratings (LPGs) fabricated in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers are investigated. The LPGs are formed by periodic structural deformations induced by local heating generated by use of a pulsed CO$_{2}$ laser. Highly polarization-dependent grating resonances are observed in the transmission spectrum of the LPGs and found to be due to coupling from the fundamental to higher order core modes. The mode-coupling process is understood based on coupled local-mode theory: A single deformation of the holey cladding modifies the local-mode field profiles and induces fractional energy transfer between the fundamental and the higher order modes. Resonant coupling between a phase-matched fundamental/higher order mode pair is excited by having multiple such deformations arranged periodically along the fiber. The LPG spectrums are numerically modeled by solving the coupled local-mode equations at different wavelengths and found in agreement with the experimentally measured results.

© 2011 IEEE

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  17. Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, "Measurement of gas diffusion coefficient using photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1434-1436 (2003).
  18. W. Jin, H. F. Xuan, H. L. Ho, "Sensing with hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, (2010) Art. ID 094014.
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  25. Y. Y. Wang, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, "Core-surround shaping of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber via HF etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1018-1020 (2008).
  26. L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, C. L. Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: Microhole collapse effect," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3563-3574 (2007).
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  29. H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. P. Wang, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, M. H. Chen, "Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber polarizer," Opt. Lett. 33, 845-847 (2008).

2010 (3)

Y. Wang, "Review of long period fiber gratings written by CO$_{2}$ laser," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 081101-1-081101-8 (2010).

W. Jin, H. F. Xuan, H. L. Ho, "Sensing with hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, (2010) Art. ID 094014.

L. Jin, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. Wang, "Coupled local-mode theory for strongly modulated long period gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1745-1751 (2010).

2009 (2)

L. Jin, W. Jin, J. Ju, "Directional bend sensing with a CO$_{2}$-laser-inscribed long period grating in a photonic crystal fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4884-4891 (2009).

F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, P. S. Light, "Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre based photonic microcells," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publication 4, (2009) Art. ID 09004.

2008 (5)

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, D. Wang, "Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 2784-2790 (2008).

K. S. Hong, H. C. Park, B. Y. Kim, I. K. Hwang, W. Jin, J. Ju, D. I. Yeom, "1000 nm tunable acousto-optic filter based on photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031110-1-031110-3 (2008).

H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. P. Wang, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, M. H. Chen, "Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber polarizer," Opt. Lett. 33, 845-847 (2008).

Y. Y. Wang, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, "Core-surround shaping of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber via HF etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1018-1020 (2008).

M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, A. van Brakel, D. J. Richardson, "Robustly single mode hollow core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Exp. 16, 4337-4346 (2008).

2007 (2)

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, M. T. Burnett, S. A. Maier, "Identification of Bloch-modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding," Opt. Exp. 15, 325-338 (2007).

L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, C. L. Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: Microhole collapse effect," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3563-3574 (2007).

2006 (3)

Y. Wang, L. Xiao, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, "Highly sensitive long-period fiber-grating strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 31, 3414-3416 (2006).

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Commun. 260, 184-191 (2006).

P. St., J. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. I. Kalachev, D. N. Nikogosyan, G. Brambilla, "Long-period fiber grating fabrication by high-intensity femtosecond pulses at 211 nm," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2568-2578 (2005).

2004 (3)

F. Luan, J. Knight, P. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. Reid, B. Mangan, D. Williams, P. Roberts, "Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800 nm wavelength in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 835-840 (2004).

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 1485-1496 (2004).

K. Saitoh, K. N. A. Mortensen, M. Koshiba, "Air-core photonic bandgap fibers: The impact of surface modes," Opt. Exp. 12, 394-400 (2004).

2003 (4)

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, "Measurement of gas diffusion coefficient using photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1434-1436 (2003).

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, "Deep-notch, ultracompact long-period grating in a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 2467-2469 (2003).

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO$_{2}$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).

2002 (1)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, P. St., J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002).

2001 (3)

G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, V. Sulimov, "High-temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings produced using an electric arc," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1574-1579 (2001).

C.-Y. Lin, L. A. Wang, G.-W. Chern, "Corrugated long-period fiber gratings as strain, torsion, and bending sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1159-1168 (2001).

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, "Microstructured optical fiber devices," Opt. Exp. 9, 698-713 (2001).

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. S. Hong, H. C. Park, B. Y. Kim, I. K. Hwang, W. Jin, J. Ju, D. I. Yeom, "1000 nm tunable acousto-optic filter based on photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031110-1-031110-3 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Y. Wang, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, "Core-surround shaping of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber via HF etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1018-1020 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, "Measurement of gas diffusion coefficient using photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1434-1436 (2003).

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publication (1)

F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, P. S. Light, "Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre based photonic microcells," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publication 4, (2009) Art. ID 09004.

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

C.-Y. Lin, L. A. Wang, G.-W. Chern, "Corrugated long-period fiber gratings as strain, torsion, and bending sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1159-1168 (2001).

A. I. Kalachev, D. N. Nikogosyan, G. Brambilla, "Long-period fiber grating fabrication by high-intensity femtosecond pulses at 211 nm," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2568-2578 (2005).

L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, C. L. Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: Microhole collapse effect," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3563-3574 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Wang, "Review of long period fiber gratings written by CO$_{2}$ laser," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 081101-1-081101-8 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, V. Sulimov, "High-temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings produced using an electric arc," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1574-1579 (2001).

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO$_{2}$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).

P. St., J. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).

L. Jin, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. Wang, "Coupled local-mode theory for strongly modulated long period gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1745-1751 (2010).

L. Jin, W. Jin, J. Ju, "Directional bend sensing with a CO$_{2}$-laser-inscribed long period grating in a photonic crystal fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4884-4891 (2009).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

W. Jin, H. F. Xuan, H. L. Ho, "Sensing with hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, (2010) Art. ID 094014.

Nature (1)

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Commun. 260, 184-191 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (2)

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, M. T. Burnett, S. A. Maier, "Identification of Bloch-modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding," Opt. Exp. 15, 325-338 (2007).

F. Luan, J. Knight, P. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. Reid, B. Mangan, D. Williams, P. Roberts, "Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800 nm wavelength in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 835-840 (2004).

Opt. Exp. (5)

M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, A. van Brakel, D. J. Richardson, "Robustly single mode hollow core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Exp. 16, 4337-4346 (2008).

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 1485-1496 (2004).

K. Saitoh, K. N. A. Mortensen, M. Koshiba, "Air-core photonic bandgap fibers: The impact of surface modes," Opt. Exp. 12, 394-400 (2004).

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, "Microstructured optical fiber devices," Opt. Exp. 9, 698-713 (2001).

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, D. Wang, "Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 2784-2790 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, P. St., J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002).

Other (1)

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).

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