Abstract

We demonstrate an integrated programmable photonic filter structure capable of producing bandpass filters with both tunable passband bandwidth and center frequency. Such filters could provide dynamic pre-filtering of very wide bandwidth analog microwave signals, essential to the next generation RF-front ends. The photonic filter is constructed from an array of uncoupled identical filter stages, each reconfigurable as a zero or a pole using an asymmetrical Mach-Zenhder Interferometer (MZI) structure with feedback. Integrated on a standard InP–InGaAsP material platform, semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and current injected phase modulators (PMs) are used to rapidly adjust the individual pole and zero locations, thereby reconfiguring the overall filter function. In this paper, we demonstrate cascaded filter structures with up to four filter stages, capable of producing a variety of higher order filters. Demonstrated filters have a free spectral range (FSR) of 23.5 or 47 GHz. A center frequency tunability over 28 GHz is demonstrated for a 2nd order bandpass filter, and a passband tunability of 1.9–5.4 GHz with stopband rejection ${>}32$ dB using 3rd and 4th order filters. Finally, the linearity of our active filters is investigated; a preliminary spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 86.3 dB$*$Hz$^{2/3}$ is obtained. However, we believe this number can be improved significantly by optimizing the design.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. T. Kun-Yii, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, C. Young-Kai, A. E. White, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, M. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon RF-photonic filter and down-converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3019-3028 (2010).
  2. J. Campany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "A tutorial on microwave photonic filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 201-229 (2006).
  3. J. E. Bowers, S. A. Newton, W. V. Sorin, H. J. Shaw, "Filter response of single-mode fibre recirculating delay lines," Electron. Let. 18, 110 (1982).
  4. A. Agarwal, "Fully programmable ring-resonator-based integrated photonic circuit for phase coherent applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 77-87 (2006).
  5. Y. Ma, S. Chang, S. Chang, S. Ho, "Improved optical filter responses in cascaded InGaAsP/InP microdisk resonators," Electron. Lett. 37, 564-565 (2001).
  6. E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, L. A. Coldren, "Programmable photonic lattice filters in InGaAsP-InP," Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 109-111 (2010).
  7. P. Toliver, "A programmable optical filter unit cell element for high resolution RF signal processing in silicon photonics," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2010) pp. 1-3.
  8. S. Ibrahim, "Fully reconfigurable silicon photonic lattice filters with four cascaded unit cells," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2010) pp. 1-3.
  9. H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, J. Bovington, J. Peters, J. Bowers, "Hybrid silicon tunable filter based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer and ring resonantor," Proc. Microw. Photon. (2009) pp. 1-4.
  10. R. S. Guzzon, E. J. Norberg, J. S. Parker, L. A. Johansson, L. A. Coldren, "Monolithically integrated programmable photonic microwave filter with tunable inter-ring coupling," Proc. Microw. Photon. (2010) pp. 23-26.
  11. E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, J. S. Parker, L. A. Johansson, L. A. Coldren, "A monolithic programmable optical filter for RF-signal processing," Proc. Microw. Photon. (2010) pp. 365-368.
  12. E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, J. S. Parker, L. A. Coldren, "Programmable photonic filters from monolithically cascaded filter stages," Proc. Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics (2010).
  13. C. K. Madsen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach .
  14. L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonics Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, 1995) pp. 218.
  15. L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonics Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, 1995) pp. 360.
  16. E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, L. A. Coldren, "Programmable photonic filters fabricated with deeply etched waveguides," Proc. Indium Phosphide Related Materials (2009) pp. 163-166.
  17. C. K. Madsen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach pp. 142-149.
  18. S. A. Pappert, B. Krantz, "RF photonics for radar front-ends," Proc. IEEE Radar Conf. (2007) pp. 965-970.
  19. P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, M. Alouini, F. Bretenaker, D. Dolfi, "Theoretical study of spurious-free dynamic range on a tunable delay line based on slow light in SOA," Opt. Exp. 17, 20584-20597 (2009).
  20. D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, R. S. Tucker, "Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122-154 (2000).
  21. Y. C. Chung, J. M. Wiesenfeld, G. Raybon, U. Koren, "Intermodulation distortion in a multiple-quatum-well semiconductor optical amplifier," Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, (1991).
  22. R. D. Esman, K. J. Williams, "Measurement of harmonic distortion in microwave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 502-504 (1990).
  23. T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, Y. Doi, "Measurement of intermodulation distortion in a unitraveling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting-facet photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 375-377 (2002).
  24. J. Raring, E. Skogen, M. Mašanovic, S. DenBaars, L. Coldren, "Demonstration of high saturation power/high gain SOAs using quantum well intermixing and MOCVD regrowth," IEE Electron. Letts. 41, 1345-1346 (2005).

2010 (2)

T. Kun-Yii, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, C. Young-Kai, A. E. White, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, M. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon RF-photonic filter and down-converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3019-3028 (2010).

E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, L. A. Coldren, "Programmable photonic lattice filters in InGaAsP-InP," Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 109-111 (2010).

2009 (1)

P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, M. Alouini, F. Bretenaker, D. Dolfi, "Theoretical study of spurious-free dynamic range on a tunable delay line based on slow light in SOA," Opt. Exp. 17, 20584-20597 (2009).

2006 (2)

J. Campany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "A tutorial on microwave photonic filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 201-229 (2006).

A. Agarwal, "Fully programmable ring-resonator-based integrated photonic circuit for phase coherent applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 77-87 (2006).

2005 (1)

J. Raring, E. Skogen, M. Mašanovic, S. DenBaars, L. Coldren, "Demonstration of high saturation power/high gain SOAs using quantum well intermixing and MOCVD regrowth," IEE Electron. Letts. 41, 1345-1346 (2005).

2002 (1)

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, Y. Doi, "Measurement of intermodulation distortion in a unitraveling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting-facet photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 375-377 (2002).

2001 (1)

Y. Ma, S. Chang, S. Chang, S. Ho, "Improved optical filter responses in cascaded InGaAsP/InP microdisk resonators," Electron. Lett. 37, 564-565 (2001).

2000 (1)

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, R. S. Tucker, "Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122-154 (2000).

1991 (1)

Y. C. Chung, J. M. Wiesenfeld, G. Raybon, U. Koren, "Intermodulation distortion in a multiple-quatum-well semiconductor optical amplifier," Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, (1991).

1990 (1)

R. D. Esman, K. J. Williams, "Measurement of harmonic distortion in microwave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 502-504 (1990).

1982 (1)

J. E. Bowers, S. A. Newton, W. V. Sorin, H. J. Shaw, "Filter response of single-mode fibre recirculating delay lines," Electron. Let. 18, 110 (1982).

Electron. Let. (1)

J. E. Bowers, S. A. Newton, W. V. Sorin, H. J. Shaw, "Filter response of single-mode fibre recirculating delay lines," Electron. Let. 18, 110 (1982).

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Ma, S. Chang, S. Chang, S. Ho, "Improved optical filter responses in cascaded InGaAsP/InP microdisk resonators," Electron. Lett. 37, 564-565 (2001).

IEE Electron. Letts. (1)

J. Raring, E. Skogen, M. Mašanovic, S. DenBaars, L. Coldren, "Demonstration of high saturation power/high gain SOAs using quantum well intermixing and MOCVD regrowth," IEE Electron. Letts. 41, 1345-1346 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. D. Esman, K. J. Williams, "Measurement of harmonic distortion in microwave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 502-504 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, Y. Doi, "Measurement of intermodulation distortion in a unitraveling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting-facet photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 375-377 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

A. Agarwal, "Fully programmable ring-resonator-based integrated photonic circuit for phase coherent applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 77-87 (2006).

T. Kun-Yii, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, C. Young-Kai, A. E. White, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, M. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon RF-photonic filter and down-converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3019-3028 (2010).

J. Campany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "A tutorial on microwave photonic filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 201-229 (2006).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, R. S. Tucker, "Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122-154 (2000).

Opt. Exp. (1)

P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, M. Alouini, F. Bretenaker, D. Dolfi, "Theoretical study of spurious-free dynamic range on a tunable delay line based on slow light in SOA," Opt. Exp. 17, 20584-20597 (2009).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. C. Chung, J. M. Wiesenfeld, G. Raybon, U. Koren, "Intermodulation distortion in a multiple-quatum-well semiconductor optical amplifier," Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, (1991).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, L. A. Coldren, "Programmable photonic lattice filters in InGaAsP-InP," Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 109-111 (2010).

Other (12)

P. Toliver, "A programmable optical filter unit cell element for high resolution RF signal processing in silicon photonics," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2010) pp. 1-3.

S. Ibrahim, "Fully reconfigurable silicon photonic lattice filters with four cascaded unit cells," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2010) pp. 1-3.

H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, J. Bovington, J. Peters, J. Bowers, "Hybrid silicon tunable filter based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer and ring resonantor," Proc. Microw. Photon. (2009) pp. 1-4.

R. S. Guzzon, E. J. Norberg, J. S. Parker, L. A. Johansson, L. A. Coldren, "Monolithically integrated programmable photonic microwave filter with tunable inter-ring coupling," Proc. Microw. Photon. (2010) pp. 23-26.

E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, J. S. Parker, L. A. Johansson, L. A. Coldren, "A monolithic programmable optical filter for RF-signal processing," Proc. Microw. Photon. (2010) pp. 365-368.

E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, J. S. Parker, L. A. Coldren, "Programmable photonic filters from monolithically cascaded filter stages," Proc. Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics (2010).

C. K. Madsen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach .

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonics Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, 1995) pp. 218.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonics Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, 1995) pp. 360.

E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, L. A. Coldren, "Programmable photonic filters fabricated with deeply etched waveguides," Proc. Indium Phosphide Related Materials (2009) pp. 163-166.

C. K. Madsen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach pp. 142-149.

S. A. Pappert, B. Krantz, "RF photonics for radar front-ends," Proc. IEEE Radar Conf. (2007) pp. 965-970.

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