Abstract

We propose the inverse Gaussian distribution, as a less complex alternative to the classical log-normal model, to describe turbulence-induced fading in free-space optical (FSO) systems operating in weak turbulence conditions and/or in the presence of aperture averaging effects. By conducting goodness of fit tests, we define the range of values of the scintillation index for various multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) FSO configurations, where the two distributions approximate each other with a certain significance level. Furthermore, the bit error rate performance of two typical MIMO FSO systems is investigated over the new turbulence model; an intensity-modulation/direct detection MIMO FSO system with $Q$-ary pulse position modulation that employs repetition coding at the transmitter and equal gain combining at the receiver, and a heterodyne MIMO FSO system with differential phase-shift keying and maximal ratio combining at the receiver. Finally, numerical results are presented that validate the theoretical analysis and provide useful insights into the implications of the model parameters on the overall system performance.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. H. Willebrand, B. S. Ghuman, Free Space Optics: Enabling Optical Connectivity in Todays Networks (Sams, 2002).
  2. L. Andrews, R. L. Philips, C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation With Applications (SPIE, 2001).
  3. F. S. Vetelino, C. Young, L. Andrews, J. Recolons, "Aperture averaging effects on the probability density of irradiance fluctuations in moderate-to strong turbulence," Appl. Opt. 46, 2099-2108 (2007).
  4. N. Perlot, D. Fritzsche, "Aperture-averaging- theory and measurements," Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5338, 233-242 (2004).
  5. X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).
  6. J. T. Li, M. Uysal, "Optical wireless communications: System model, capacity and coding," Proc. IEEE Veh. Tech. Conf. (2003) pp. 168-172.
  7. S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, M. Kavehrad, "BER perfomance of freespace optical transmission with spatial diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6, 2813-2819 (2007).
  8. E. Lee, V. Chan, "Part 1: Optical communication over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1896-1906 (2004).
  9. W. Gappmair, S. S. Muhammad, "Error performance of terrestrial FSO links modelled as PPM/Poisson channels in turbulent atmosphere," IET Electron. Lett. 43, 63-64 (2007).
  10. S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Qao, J. H. Leveque, "Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1402-1411 (2005).
  11. Karmeshu, R. Agrawal, "On efficacy of Rayleigh-inverse Gaussian distribution over K-distribution for wireless fading channels," Wireless Commun. Mobile Comput. 7, 1-7 (2007).
  12. K. R. Baker, "On the WMC density as an inverse Gaussian probability density," IEEE Trans. Commun. 44, 15-17 (1996).
  13. R. S. Chhikara, J. L. Folks, The Inverse Gaussian Distribution: Theory, Methodology, and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 1989).
  14. A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 1991).
  15. D. Giggenbach, H. Henniger, "Fading-loss assessment in atmospheric free-space optical communication links with on-off keying," Opt. Eng. 47, 046001 (2008).
  16. D. J. T. Heatley, D. R. Wisely, I. Neild, P. Cochrane, "Optical wireless: The story so far," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 72-74 (1998).
  17. J. Hamkins, "Accurate computation of the perfromance of M-ary orthogonal signalling on a discrete memoryless channel," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 1844-1845 (2004).
  18. I. S. Gradshteyn, I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products (Academic, 2007).
  19. N. Perlot, "Turbulence-induced fading probability in coherent optical communication through the atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 46, 7218-7226 (2007).
  20. K. Kiasaleh, "Performance of coherent DPSK free-space optical communication systems in K-distributed turbulence," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 604-607 (2006).
  21. H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, "Optical wireless communications with heterodyne detection over turbulence channels with pointing errors," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4440-4445 (2009).
  22. T. A. Tsiftsis, "Performance of heterodyne wireless optical communication systems over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IET Electron. Lett. 44, 372-373 (2008).
  23. M. K. Simon, M.-S. Alouini, Digital Communication Over Fading Channels (Wiley, 2005).

2009 (1)

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, "Optical wireless communications with heterodyne detection over turbulence channels with pointing errors," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4440-4445 (2009).

2008 (2)

T. A. Tsiftsis, "Performance of heterodyne wireless optical communication systems over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IET Electron. Lett. 44, 372-373 (2008).

D. Giggenbach, H. Henniger, "Fading-loss assessment in atmospheric free-space optical communication links with on-off keying," Opt. Eng. 47, 046001 (2008).

2007 (5)

F. S. Vetelino, C. Young, L. Andrews, J. Recolons, "Aperture averaging effects on the probability density of irradiance fluctuations in moderate-to strong turbulence," Appl. Opt. 46, 2099-2108 (2007).

N. Perlot, "Turbulence-induced fading probability in coherent optical communication through the atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 46, 7218-7226 (2007).

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, M. Kavehrad, "BER perfomance of freespace optical transmission with spatial diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6, 2813-2819 (2007).

W. Gappmair, S. S. Muhammad, "Error performance of terrestrial FSO links modelled as PPM/Poisson channels in turbulent atmosphere," IET Electron. Lett. 43, 63-64 (2007).

Karmeshu, R. Agrawal, "On efficacy of Rayleigh-inverse Gaussian distribution over K-distribution for wireless fading channels," Wireless Commun. Mobile Comput. 7, 1-7 (2007).

2006 (1)

K. Kiasaleh, "Performance of coherent DPSK free-space optical communication systems in K-distributed turbulence," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 604-607 (2006).

2005 (1)

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Qao, J. H. Leveque, "Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1402-1411 (2005).

2004 (3)

E. Lee, V. Chan, "Part 1: Optical communication over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1896-1906 (2004).

N. Perlot, D. Fritzsche, "Aperture-averaging- theory and measurements," Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5338, 233-242 (2004).

J. Hamkins, "Accurate computation of the perfromance of M-ary orthogonal signalling on a discrete memoryless channel," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 1844-1845 (2004).

2002 (1)

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).

1998 (1)

D. J. T. Heatley, D. R. Wisely, I. Neild, P. Cochrane, "Optical wireless: The story so far," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 72-74 (1998).

1996 (1)

K. R. Baker, "On the WMC density as an inverse Gaussian probability density," IEEE Trans. Commun. 44, 15-17 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

E. Lee, V. Chan, "Part 1: Optical communication over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1896-1906 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

D. J. T. Heatley, D. R. Wisely, I. Neild, P. Cochrane, "Optical wireless: The story so far," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 72-74 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (4)

J. Hamkins, "Accurate computation of the perfromance of M-ary orthogonal signalling on a discrete memoryless channel," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 1844-1845 (2004).

K. R. Baker, "On the WMC density as an inverse Gaussian probability density," IEEE Trans. Commun. 44, 15-17 (1996).

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Qao, J. H. Leveque, "Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1402-1411 (2005).

K. Kiasaleh, "Performance of coherent DPSK free-space optical communication systems in K-distributed turbulence," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 604-607 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (1)

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, M. Kavehrad, "BER perfomance of freespace optical transmission with spatial diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6, 2813-2819 (2007).

IET Electron. Lett. (2)

W. Gappmair, S. S. Muhammad, "Error performance of terrestrial FSO links modelled as PPM/Poisson channels in turbulent atmosphere," IET Electron. Lett. 43, 63-64 (2007).

T. A. Tsiftsis, "Performance of heterodyne wireless optical communication systems over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IET Electron. Lett. 44, 372-373 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, "Optical wireless communications with heterodyne detection over turbulence channels with pointing errors," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4440-4445 (2009).

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. Giggenbach, H. Henniger, "Fading-loss assessment in atmospheric free-space optical communication links with on-off keying," Opt. Eng. 47, 046001 (2008).

Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (1)

N. Perlot, D. Fritzsche, "Aperture-averaging- theory and measurements," Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5338, 233-242 (2004).

Wireless Commun. Mobile Comput. (1)

Karmeshu, R. Agrawal, "On efficacy of Rayleigh-inverse Gaussian distribution over K-distribution for wireless fading channels," Wireless Commun. Mobile Comput. 7, 1-7 (2007).

Other (7)

J. T. Li, M. Uysal, "Optical wireless communications: System model, capacity and coding," Proc. IEEE Veh. Tech. Conf. (2003) pp. 168-172.

M. K. Simon, M.-S. Alouini, Digital Communication Over Fading Channels (Wiley, 2005).

H. Willebrand, B. S. Ghuman, Free Space Optics: Enabling Optical Connectivity in Todays Networks (Sams, 2002).

L. Andrews, R. L. Philips, C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation With Applications (SPIE, 2001).

R. S. Chhikara, J. L. Folks, The Inverse Gaussian Distribution: Theory, Methodology, and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 1989).

A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 1991).

I. S. Gradshteyn, I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products (Academic, 2007).

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