Abstract

A prestressed fiber Bragg grating with high temperature stability has been successfully fabricated by use of 800 nm femtosecond laser pulse irradiation through high-temperature annealing, followed by a rapid cooling treatment. The reflectivity and the resonant wavelength of the grating are maintained constants for more than 26 h in an isothermal measurement up to 1200 $^{\circ}$C, showing significant improvement over conventional femtosecond laser pulse induced fiber gratings. Longitudinal tension tests demonstrate that the prestressed fiber exhibits enhanced mechanical robustness compared with the residual stress relaxed fiber. This paper reveals that residual stress plays an important role and essentially provides a new solution to enhance the thermal stability of fiber gratings at elevated temperatures and offering high reliability.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, D. Goodchild, "Thermal decay of fiber Bragg gratings written in boron and germanium codoped silica fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1470-1477 (1997).
  2. G. Brambilla, "High-temperature fibre Bragg grating thermometer," Electron. Lett. 38, 954-955 (2002).
  3. S. Bandyopadhyay, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, K. Cook, "Ultrahigh-temperature regenerated gratings in boron-codoped germanosilicate optical fiber using 193 nm," Opt. Lett. 33, 1917-1919 (2008).
  4. E. Lindner, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, "Thermal regeneration of fiber Bragg gratings in photosensitive fibers," Opt. Exp. 17, 12523-12531 (2009).
  5. C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, "Formation of type I-IR and type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask," Opt. Exp. 13, 5377-5386 (2005).
  6. D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, "Long-term thermal stability tests at 1000$^{\circ}$C of silica fibre Bragg gratings made with ultrafast laser radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009-1013 (2006).
  7. Y. Li, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, "Study of spectral and annealing properties of fiber Bragg gratings written in H2-free and H2-loaded fibers by use of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Exp. 16, 21239-21247 (2008).
  8. D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, H. Ding, "Sapphire fiber Bragg grating sensor made using femtosecond laser radiation for ultrahigh temperature applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505-2507 (2004).
  9. D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, F. Bilodeau, C. W. Smelser, "Single and low order mode interrogation of a multimode sapphire fibre Bragg grating sensor with tapered fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 980-984 (2006).
  10. U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, "Calculation of cooling rate and induced stresses in drawing of optical fibers," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330-334 (1975).
  11. D. J. Wissuchek, C. W. Ponader, J. J. Price, Analysis of Residual Stress in Optical Fiber (SPIE, 1999) pp. 34-43.
  12. Y. Li, M. Yang, D. N. Wang, J. Lu, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, "Fiber Bragg gratings with enhanced thermal stability by residual stress relaxation," Opt. Exp. 17, 19785-19790 (2009).
  13. Y. Li, C. Liao, D. N. Wang, J. Lu, P. Lu, "Fiber Bragg grating for high temperature applications," 15th Opto-Electron. Commun. Conf. SapporoJapan (2010) Paper 9C3-5.

2009 (2)

E. Lindner, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, "Thermal regeneration of fiber Bragg gratings in photosensitive fibers," Opt. Exp. 17, 12523-12531 (2009).

Y. Li, M. Yang, D. N. Wang, J. Lu, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, "Fiber Bragg gratings with enhanced thermal stability by residual stress relaxation," Opt. Exp. 17, 19785-19790 (2009).

2008 (2)

Y. Li, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, "Study of spectral and annealing properties of fiber Bragg gratings written in H2-free and H2-loaded fibers by use of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Exp. 16, 21239-21247 (2008).

S. Bandyopadhyay, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, K. Cook, "Ultrahigh-temperature regenerated gratings in boron-codoped germanosilicate optical fiber using 193 nm," Opt. Lett. 33, 1917-1919 (2008).

2006 (2)

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, "Long-term thermal stability tests at 1000$^{\circ}$C of silica fibre Bragg gratings made with ultrafast laser radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009-1013 (2006).

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, F. Bilodeau, C. W. Smelser, "Single and low order mode interrogation of a multimode sapphire fibre Bragg grating sensor with tapered fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 980-984 (2006).

2005 (1)

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, "Formation of type I-IR and type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask," Opt. Exp. 13, 5377-5386 (2005).

2004 (1)

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, H. Ding, "Sapphire fiber Bragg grating sensor made using femtosecond laser radiation for ultrahigh temperature applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505-2507 (2004).

2002 (1)

G. Brambilla, "High-temperature fibre Bragg grating thermometer," Electron. Lett. 38, 954-955 (2002).

1997 (1)

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, D. Goodchild, "Thermal decay of fiber Bragg gratings written in boron and germanium codoped silica fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1470-1477 (1997).

1975 (1)

U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, "Calculation of cooling rate and induced stresses in drawing of optical fibers," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330-334 (1975).

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Brambilla, "High-temperature fibre Bragg grating thermometer," Electron. Lett. 38, 954-955 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, H. Ding, "Sapphire fiber Bragg grating sensor made using femtosecond laser radiation for ultrahigh temperature applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505-2507 (2004).

J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. (1)

U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, "Calculation of cooling rate and induced stresses in drawing of optical fibers," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330-334 (1975).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, D. Goodchild, "Thermal decay of fiber Bragg gratings written in boron and germanium codoped silica fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1470-1477 (1997).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, F. Bilodeau, C. W. Smelser, "Single and low order mode interrogation of a multimode sapphire fibre Bragg grating sensor with tapered fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 980-984 (2006).

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, "Long-term thermal stability tests at 1000$^{\circ}$C of silica fibre Bragg gratings made with ultrafast laser radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009-1013 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (1)

E. Lindner, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, "Thermal regeneration of fiber Bragg gratings in photosensitive fibers," Opt. Exp. 17, 12523-12531 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (3)

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, "Formation of type I-IR and type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask," Opt. Exp. 13, 5377-5386 (2005).

Y. Li, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, "Study of spectral and annealing properties of fiber Bragg gratings written in H2-free and H2-loaded fibers by use of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Exp. 16, 21239-21247 (2008).

Y. Li, M. Yang, D. N. Wang, J. Lu, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, "Fiber Bragg gratings with enhanced thermal stability by residual stress relaxation," Opt. Exp. 17, 19785-19790 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

Y. Li, C. Liao, D. N. Wang, J. Lu, P. Lu, "Fiber Bragg grating for high temperature applications," 15th Opto-Electron. Commun. Conf. SapporoJapan (2010) Paper 9C3-5.

D. J. Wissuchek, C. W. Ponader, J. J. Price, Analysis of Residual Stress in Optical Fiber (SPIE, 1999) pp. 34-43.

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