Abstract

We report on the fabrication of channel waveguides in ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Yb:YAG) ceramics by carbon ion implantation. Confocal microfluorescence experiments revealed that the fluorescence efficiency of Yb ions is well preserved in the waveguide area, contrary to the case of helium ion-implanted waveguides characterized by a severe ion implantation-induced fluorescence quenching at waveguide's volume. The fluorescence images of the channel waveguides, and its comparison to those obtained from femtosecond direct laser written Yb:YAG waveguides, have been used to elucidate the waveguide formation mechanisms.

© 2011 IEEE

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  3. S. Nakamura, H. Yoshioka, Y. Matsubara, T. Ogawa, S. Wada, "Broadly tunable Yb$^{3 +}$-doped Y$_{3}$Al$_{5}$O$_{12}$ ceramic laser at room temperature," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 060205 (2009).
  4. A. Pirri, D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, "High-efficiency, high-power and low threshold Yb$^{3 +}$:YAG ceramic laser," Opt. Exp. 17, 23344-23349 (2009).
  5. J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, "Laser-diode pumped heavy-doped Yb:YAG ceramic lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1890-1892 (2007).
  6. A. Pirri, D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, "A ceramic based Yb$^{3 +}$:YAG laser," Laser Phys. 20, 931-935 (2010).
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  12. J. Dong, K. Ueda, A. Shirakawa, H. Tagi, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, "Composite Yb:YAG/Cr$^{4 +}$:YAG ceramics picosecond microchip lasers," Opt. Exp. 15, 14516-14523 (2007).
  13. S. Nakamura, H. Yoshioka, Y. Matsubara, T. Okawa, S. Wada, "Broadly tunable Yb$^{3 +}$-Doped Y$_3$Al$_5$O$_{12}$ ceramic laser at room temperature," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 075105-1-075105-5 (2010).
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  21. Y. Tan, F. Chen, "Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG laser ceramics," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 075105 (2010).
  22. G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O$^{3 +}$ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO$_{3}$: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
  23. A. Rivera, J. Olivares, G. García, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-Rueda, F. Agulló-López, "Giant enhancement of material damage associated to electric excitation during ion irradiation: The case of LiNbO$_{3}$," Phys. Stat. Solidi A 206, 1109-1116 (2009).
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  26. F. Chen, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, "Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation," Opt. Lett. 34, 28-30 (2009).
  27. F. Chen, "Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress," Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 33, 165-182 (2008).
  28. F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, "Diverse mechanism of refractive index modification in neodymium-doped KGd(WO$_{4}$)$_{2}$ crystal induced by MeV He$^{+}$ or C$^{3 +}$ ion implantation for waveguide construction," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083123-1-083123-6 (2008).
  29. R. Regener, W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO$_{3}$ optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
  30. A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, D. Jaque, "Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: Micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations," Appl. Phys. B 95, 85-96 (2009).
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  32. F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, G. Boulon, "Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb$^{3 +}$, Er$^{3 +}$, and Ho$^{3 +}$ doped Y$_{2}$O$_{3}$," Opt. Mater. 24, 103-109 (2003).
  33. A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, "Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: A study of thermal and non-thermal regimes," Appl. Phys. A. DOI 10.1007/s00339-010-6135-9.
  34. B. Henderson, G. F. Imbusch, Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids (Oxford Univ. Press, 1989).

2010 (6)

A. Pirri, D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, "A ceramic based Yb$^{3 +}$:YAG laser," Laser Phys. 20, 931-935 (2010).

S. Nakamura, H. Yoshioka, Y. Matsubara, T. Okawa, S. Wada, "Broadly tunable Yb$^{3 +}$-Doped Y$_3$Al$_5$O$_{12}$ ceramic laser at room temperature," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 075105-1-075105-5 (2010).

Y. Tan, F. Chen, "Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG laser ceramics," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 075105 (2010).

N. N. Dong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, "Carbon ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO$_{3}$ optical channel waveguides: An intermediate step between light and heavy ion implanted waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 5951-5956 (2010).

H. Yoshioka, S. Nakamura, T. Ogawa, S. Wada, "Dual-wavelength mode-locked Yb:YAG ceramic laser in single cavity," Opt. Exp. 18, 1479-1486 (2010).

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, G. Huber, "Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser," Opt. Exp. 18, 16035-10641 (2010).

2009 (5)

S. Nakamura, H. Yoshioka, Y. Matsubara, T. Ogawa, S. Wada, "Broadly tunable Yb$^{3 +}$-doped Y$_{3}$Al$_{5}$O$_{12}$ ceramic laser at room temperature," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 060205 (2009).

A. Pirri, D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, "High-efficiency, high-power and low threshold Yb$^{3 +}$:YAG ceramic laser," Opt. Exp. 17, 23344-23349 (2009).

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, D. Jaque, "Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: Micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations," Appl. Phys. B 95, 85-96 (2009).

F. Chen, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, "Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation," Opt. Lett. 34, 28-30 (2009).

A. Rivera, J. Olivares, G. García, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-Rueda, F. Agulló-López, "Giant enhancement of material damage associated to electric excitation during ion irradiation: The case of LiNbO$_{3}$," Phys. Stat. Solidi A 206, 1109-1116 (2009).

2008 (3)

S. Nakamura, H. Yoshioka, Y. Matsubara, T. Ogawa, S. Wada, "Efficient tunable Yb:YAG ceramic laser," Opt. Commun. 281, 4411-4414 (2008).

F. Chen, "Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress," Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 33, 165-182 (2008).

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, "Diverse mechanism of refractive index modification in neodymium-doped KGd(WO$_{4}$)$_{2}$ crystal induced by MeV He$^{+}$ or C$^{3 +}$ ion implantation for waveguide construction," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083123-1-083123-6 (2008).

2007 (4)

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, "Laser-diode pumped heavy-doped Yb:YAG ceramic lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1890-1892 (2007).

M. Tsunekane, T. Taira, "High-power operation of diode edge-pumped, composite all-ceramic Yb:Y$_{3}$Al$_{5}$O$_{12}$ microchip laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121101-1-121101-3 (2007).

J. Dong, K. Ueda, A. Shirakawa, H. Tagi, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, "Composite Yb:YAG/Cr$^{4 +}$:YAG ceramics picosecond microchip lasers," Opt. Exp. 15, 14516-14523 (2007).

A. A. Kaminskii, "Laser crystals and ceramics: Recent advances," Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 93-177 (2007).

2003 (3)

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandez, R. Balda, "New data on investigation of physical properties of nanocrystalline laser ceramic on the base of Y$_{3}$Al$_{5}$O$_{12}$," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).

K. Takaichi, H. Yagi, J. Lu, A. Skirakawa, K. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, "Yb$^{3 +}$ doped Y$_{3}$Al$_{5}$O$_{12}$ ceramics a new solid-state laser material," Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200, R5-R7 (2003).

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, G. Boulon, "Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb$^{3 +}$, Er$^{3 +}$, and Ho$^{3 +}$ doped Y$_{2}$O$_{3}$," Opt. Mater. 24, 103-109 (2003).

2002 (1)

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O$^{3 +}$ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO$_{3}$: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).

2001 (1)

A. Brenier, G. Boulon, "Overview of the best Yb$^{3 +}$-doped laser crystals," J. All. Comp. 323–324, 210-213 (2001).

2000 (2)

U. Griebner, R. Grunwald, H. Schönnagel, J. Huschke, G. Erbert, "Laser with guided pump and free-propagating resonator mode using diffusion-bonded rectangular channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3505-3507 (2000).

J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, T. Südmeyer, R. Paschotta, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, U. Keller, "16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:YAG thin disk laser," Opt. Lett. 25, 859-861 (2000).

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

N. Sugimoto, Y. Ohishi, Y. Katoh, A. Tate, M. Shimokozono, S. Sudo, "A ytterbium- and neodymium-co-doped yttrium aluminum garnet-buried channel waveguide laser pumped at 0.81 mm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 582-584 (1995).

1993 (1)

D. C. Hanna, J. K. Jones, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, M. J. Rodman, P. D. Townsend, L. Zhang, "Quasi-three level 1.03 $\mu$m laser operation of a planar ion-implanted Yb:YAG waveguide," Opt. Commun. 99, 211-215 (1993).

1991 (1)

1985 (1)

R. Regener, W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO$_{3}$ optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).

Appl. Phys. A. (1)

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Ródenas, C. Jacinto, J. Vázquez de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, "Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: A study of thermal and non-thermal regimes," Appl. Phys. A. DOI 10.1007/s00339-010-6135-9.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Sugimoto, Y. Ohishi, Y. Katoh, A. Tate, M. Shimokozono, S. Sudo, "A ytterbium- and neodymium-co-doped yttrium aluminum garnet-buried channel waveguide laser pumped at 0.81 mm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 582-584 (1995).

Appl. Phys. B (2)

R. Regener, W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO$_{3}$ optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, D. Jaque, "Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: Micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations," Appl. Phys. B 95, 85-96 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

U. Griebner, R. Grunwald, H. Schönnagel, J. Huschke, G. Erbert, "Laser with guided pump and free-propagating resonator mode using diffusion-bonded rectangular channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3505-3507 (2000).

M. Tsunekane, T. Taira, "High-power operation of diode edge-pumped, composite all-ceramic Yb:Y$_{3}$Al$_{5}$O$_{12}$ microchip laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121101-1-121101-3 (2007).

Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (1)

F. Chen, "Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress," Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 33, 165-182 (2008).

Crystallogr. Rep. (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandez, R. Balda, "New data on investigation of physical properties of nanocrystalline laser ceramic on the base of Y$_{3}$Al$_{5}$O$_{12}$," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, "Diverse mechanism of refractive index modification in neodymium-doped KGd(WO$_{4}$)$_{2}$ crystal induced by MeV He$^{+}$ or C$^{3 +}$ ion implantation for waveguide construction," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083123-1-083123-6 (2008).

J. All. Comp. (1)

A. Brenier, G. Boulon, "Overview of the best Yb$^{3 +}$-doped laser crystals," J. All. Comp. 323–324, 210-213 (2001).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O$^{3 +}$ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO$_{3}$: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Tan, F. Chen, "Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG laser ceramics," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 075105 (2010).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Nakamura, H. Yoshioka, Y. Matsubara, T. Ogawa, S. Wada, "Broadly tunable Yb$^{3 +}$-doped Y$_{3}$Al$_{5}$O$_{12}$ ceramic laser at room temperature," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 060205 (2009).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Nakamura, H. Yoshioka, Y. Matsubara, T. Okawa, S. Wada, "Broadly tunable Yb$^{3 +}$-Doped Y$_3$Al$_5$O$_{12}$ ceramic laser at room temperature," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 075105-1-075105-5 (2010).

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, "Laser crystals and ceramics: Recent advances," Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 93-177 (2007).

Laser Phys. (1)

A. Pirri, D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, "A ceramic based Yb$^{3 +}$:YAG laser," Laser Phys. 20, 931-935 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (1)

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, G. Huber, "Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser," Opt. Exp. 18, 16035-10641 (2010).

Opt. Commun. (2)

S. Nakamura, H. Yoshioka, Y. Matsubara, T. Ogawa, S. Wada, "Efficient tunable Yb:YAG ceramic laser," Opt. Commun. 281, 4411-4414 (2008).

D. C. Hanna, J. K. Jones, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, M. J. Rodman, P. D. Townsend, L. Zhang, "Quasi-three level 1.03 $\mu$m laser operation of a planar ion-implanted Yb:YAG waveguide," Opt. Commun. 99, 211-215 (1993).

Opt. Exp. (4)

N. N. Dong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, "Carbon ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO$_{3}$ optical channel waveguides: An intermediate step between light and heavy ion implanted waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 5951-5956 (2010).

J. Dong, K. Ueda, A. Shirakawa, H. Tagi, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, "Composite Yb:YAG/Cr$^{4 +}$:YAG ceramics picosecond microchip lasers," Opt. Exp. 15, 14516-14523 (2007).

H. Yoshioka, S. Nakamura, T. Ogawa, S. Wada, "Dual-wavelength mode-locked Yb:YAG ceramic laser in single cavity," Opt. Exp. 18, 1479-1486 (2010).

A. Pirri, D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, "High-efficiency, high-power and low threshold Yb$^{3 +}$:YAG ceramic laser," Opt. Exp. 17, 23344-23349 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. (1)

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, G. Boulon, "Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb$^{3 +}$, Er$^{3 +}$, and Ho$^{3 +}$ doped Y$_{2}$O$_{3}$," Opt. Mater. 24, 103-109 (2003).

Phys. Stat. Solidi A (2)

K. Takaichi, H. Yagi, J. Lu, A. Skirakawa, K. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, "Yb$^{3 +}$ doped Y$_{3}$Al$_{5}$O$_{12}$ ceramics a new solid-state laser material," Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200, R5-R7 (2003).

A. Rivera, J. Olivares, G. García, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-Rueda, F. Agulló-López, "Giant enhancement of material damage associated to electric excitation during ion irradiation: The case of LiNbO$_{3}$," Phys. Stat. Solidi A 206, 1109-1116 (2009).

Other (3)

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994).

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, 1981).

B. Henderson, G. F. Imbusch, Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids (Oxford Univ. Press, 1989).

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