Fang, Th. Koschny, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, "Self-consistent calculation
of metamaterials with gain," Phys. Rev. B 79 79, 2411041-2411044 (2009).

Y. Huang, S. T. Ho, "High-speed low-power photonic transistor
devices based on optically-controlled gain or absorption to affect optical
interference," Opt. Exp. 16, 16806-16824 (2008).

Z. Y. Huang, G. W. Pan, "Universally applicable uni-axial
perfect matched layer formulation for explicit and implicit finite difference
time domain algorithms," IET Microwaves, Antennas
Propag. 2, 668-676 (2008).

Y. Huang, S. T. Ho, "Dynamical semiconductor medium FDTD simulation
of current-injection nanophotonic devices," Opt.
Quantum Electron. 40, 337-341 (2008).

W. H. P. Pernice, F. P. Payne, D. F. G. Gallagher, "A finite-difference time-domain
method for the simulation of gain materials with carrier diffusion in photonic
crystals," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2306-2314 (2007).

Y. Huang, S. T. Ho, "Computational model of solid-state, molecular,
or atomic media for FDTD simulation based on a multi-level multielectron system
governed by Pauli exclusion and Fermi-Dirac thermalization with application
to semiconductor photonics," Opt. Exp. 14, 3569-3587 (2006).

P. Bermel, E. Lidorikis, Y. Fink, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Active materials embedded in photonic crystals
and coupled to electromagnetic radiation," Phys.
Rev. B 73, 1651251-1651258 (2006).

S. Shi, G. Jin, D. W. Prather, "Electromagnetic simulation of quantum well
structures," Opt. Exp. 14, 2459-2472 (2006).

O. Ramadan, "Uncondictionally stable crank-nicolson
nearly PML algorithm for truncating linear lorentz dispersive FDTD domains," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 2807-2812 (2006).

O. Ramadan, "Unconditionally stable nearly
PML algorithm for linear dispersive media," IEEE
Microw. Wireless Components Lett. 15, 490-492 (2005).

M. K. Seo, G. H. Song, I. K. Hwang, Y. H. Lee, "Nonlinear dispersive three-dimensional
finite-difference time-domain analysis for photonic-crystal lasers," Opt. Exp. 13, 9645-9651 (2005).

M. Bahl, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Modeling
ultrashort field dynamics in surface emitting lasers by using finite-difference
time-domain method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1244-1252 (2005).

S. Chang, A. Taflove, "Finite-difference time-domain
model of lasing action in a four-level two-electron atomic system," Opt. Exp. 12, 3827-3833 (2004).

G. M. Slavcheva, J. M. Arnold, R. W. Ziolkowski, "FDTD simulation of the nonlinear
gain dynamics in active optical waveguides and semiconductor microcavities," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 1052-1062 (2004).

P. Kosmas, C. Rappaport, "A simple absorbing boundary
condition for FDTD modeling of lossy, dispersive media based on the one-way
wave equation," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag. 52, 2476-2479 (2004).

J. Berenger, "Numerical reflection from FDTD-PMLs:
A comparison of the split PML with the unsplit and CFS PMLs," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag. 50, 258-265 (2002).

X. Jiang, C. M. Soukoulis, "Time dependent theory for random
lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 70-73 (2000).

J. P. Berenger, "Perfectly matched layer for
the FDTD solution of wave-structure interaction problems," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag. 44, 110-117 (1996).

S. D. Gedney, "An anisotropic perfectly matched
layer-absorbing medium for the truncation of FDTD lattices," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag. 44, 1630-1639 (1996).

O. Ramadan, "Unconditionally stable nearly
PML algorithm for linear dispersive media," IEEE
Microw. Wireless Components Lett. 15, 490-492 (2005).

M. Bahl, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Modeling
ultrashort field dynamics in surface emitting lasers by using finite-difference
time-domain method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1244-1252 (2005).

G. M. Slavcheva, J. M. Arnold, R. W. Ziolkowski, "FDTD simulation of the nonlinear
gain dynamics in active optical waveguides and semiconductor microcavities," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 1052-1062 (2004).

J. P. Berenger, "Perfectly matched layer for
the FDTD solution of wave-structure interaction problems," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag. 44, 110-117 (1996).

S. D. Gedney, "An anisotropic perfectly matched
layer-absorbing medium for the truncation of FDTD lattices," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag. 44, 1630-1639 (1996).

J. Berenger, "Numerical reflection from FDTD-PMLs:
A comparison of the split PML with the unsplit and CFS PMLs," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag. 50, 258-265 (2002).

P. Kosmas, C. Rappaport, "A simple absorbing boundary
condition for FDTD modeling of lossy, dispersive media based on the one-way
wave equation," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag. 52, 2476-2479 (2004).

O. Ramadan, "Uncondictionally stable crank-nicolson
nearly PML algorithm for truncating linear lorentz dispersive FDTD domains," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 2807-2812 (2006).

Z. Y. Huang, G. W. Pan, "Universally applicable uni-axial
perfect matched layer formulation for explicit and implicit finite difference
time domain algorithms," IET Microwaves, Antennas
Propag. 2, 668-676 (2008).

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, K. A. Bertness, "Spectral dependence of the
change in refractive index due to carrier injection in GaAs lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4457-4461.

W. H. P. Pernice, F. P. Payne, D. F. G. Gallagher, "A finite-difference time-domain
method for the simulation of gain materials with carrier diffusion in photonic
crystals," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2306-2314 (2007).

Y. Huang, S. T. Ho, "Dynamical semiconductor medium FDTD simulation
of current-injection nanophotonic devices," Opt.
Quantum Electron. 40, 337-341 (2008).

M. K. Seo, G. H. Song, I. K. Hwang, Y. H. Lee, "Nonlinear dispersive three-dimensional
finite-difference time-domain analysis for photonic-crystal lasers," Opt. Exp. 13, 9645-9651 (2005).

Y. Huang, S. T. Ho, "Computational model of solid-state, molecular,
or atomic media for FDTD simulation based on a multi-level multielectron system
governed by Pauli exclusion and Fermi-Dirac thermalization with application
to semiconductor photonics," Opt. Exp. 14, 3569-3587 (2006).

S. Shi, G. Jin, D. W. Prather, "Electromagnetic simulation of quantum well
structures," Opt. Exp. 14, 2459-2472 (2006).

Y. Huang, S. T. Ho, "High-speed low-power photonic transistor
devices based on optically-controlled gain or absorption to affect optical
interference," Opt. Exp. 16, 16806-16824 (2008).

S. Chang, A. Taflove, "Finite-difference time-domain
model of lasing action in a four-level two-electron atomic system," Opt. Exp. 12, 3827-3833 (2004).

P. Bermel, E. Lidorikis, Y. Fink, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Active materials embedded in photonic crystals
and coupled to electromagnetic radiation," Phys.
Rev. B 73, 1651251-1651258 (2006).

Fang, Th. Koschny, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, "Self-consistent calculation
of metamaterials with gain," Phys. Rev. B 79 79, 2411041-2411044 (2009).

X. Jiang, C. M. Soukoulis, "Time dependent theory for random
lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 70-73 (2000).

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, Introduction to
Optical Waveguide Analysis Solving Maxwell's Equations and the Schrödinger
Equation (Wiley, 2001).