Abstract

Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers can present holes in spectral gain in Wavelength Division Multiplexing operation. The origin of this inhomogeneous saturation behavior is still a subject of controversy. In this paper we present both an experimental methods and a gain's model. Our experimental method allow us to measure the first homogeneous linewidth of the 1.5 $\mu$m erbium emission with gain spectral hole burning consistently with the other measurement in the literature and the model explains the differences observed in literature between GSHB and other measurement methods.

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  1. A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, "Infrared and optical masers," Phys. Rev. 112, 1940-1949 (1958).
  2. T. H. Maiman, "Stimulated optical radiation in ruby," Nature 187, 493-494 (1960).
  3. A. Yariv, J. P. Gordon, "The laser," Proc. IEEE 51, 4-29 (1963).
  4. R. Mears, L. Reekie, J. Jauncey, P. D. N. , "High-gain rare-earth rare-earth-doped fiber amplifier at 1.54 $\mu$m," Proc. OFC (1987) pp. 277.
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  13. R. Peretti, A. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, E. Burov, L. Gasca, "Resonant fluorescence line narrowing and gain spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifier," J. Lumin 128, 1010-1012 (2008).
  14. M. N. Shunsuke Ono, S. Tanabe, E. Ishikawa, "Origin of multi-hole structure in gain spectrum of erbium-doped fiber amplifier," Proc. OSA Trends Opt. Photo (2005).
  15. S. Ono, S. Tanabe, M. Nishihara, E. Ishikawa, "Study on the dynamics of a gain spectral hole in a silica-based erbium-doped fiber at 77 k," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 1594-1599 (2005).
  16. T. Miyakawa, D. L. Dexter, "Phonon sidebands, multiphonon relaxation of excited states, and phonon-assisted energy transfer between ions in solids," Phys. Rev. B 1, 2961-2969 (1970).
  17. F. Auzel, "Upconversion processes in coupled ion systems," J. Lumin. 45, 341-345 (1990).
  18. F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, F. Pelle, P. Goldner, "Cooperative luminescence as a defining process for re-ions clustering in glasses and crystals," Opt. Mater. 4, 35-41 (1994).
  19. C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, "Transient gain and cross talk in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 14, 880-882 (1989).
  20. C. Giles, E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
  21. R. Laming, L. Reekie, P. Morkel, D. Payne, "Multichannel crosstalk and pump noise characterisation of Er$^{3+}$-doped fibre amplifier pumped at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 25, 455-456 (1989).
  22. M. Yadlowsky, L. Button, "Pump-mediated inhomogeneous effects in EDFAs and their impact ongain spectral modeling," Proc. OFC'98 Tech. Dig. (1998) pp. 35-36.
  23. W. A. Arellano, M. Berendt, A. A. Rieznik, I. de Faria, H. L. Fragnito, "Observation of spectral hole burning in the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum of erbium doped fibers," Proc. IX Symp. Brasileiro de Microondas e Optoeletrônica 1, 1 (2000).
  24. E. Desurvire, J. Zyskind, J. Simpson, "Spectral gain hole-burning at 1.53 $\mu$m in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 2, 246-248 (1990).
  25. R. Peretti, A. M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, E. Burov, A. Pastouret, "Evidence of two erbium sites in standard aluminosilicate glass for EDFA," Opt. Exp. 18, 20661-20666 (2010).
  26. E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, "Modeling of pair-induced quenching in erbium-doped silicate fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 5, 73-75 (1993).

2010 (1)

R. Peretti, A. M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, E. Burov, A. Pastouret, "Evidence of two erbium sites in standard aluminosilicate glass for EDFA," Opt. Exp. 18, 20661-20666 (2010).

2008 (1)

R. Peretti, A. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, E. Burov, L. Gasca, "Resonant fluorescence line narrowing and gain spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifier," J. Lumin 128, 1010-1012 (2008).

2005 (1)

S. Ono, S. Tanabe, M. Nishihara, E. Ishikawa, "Study on the dynamics of a gain spectral hole in a silica-based erbium-doped fiber at 77 k," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 1594-1599 (2005).

2002 (1)

L. Bigot, A.-M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, L. Gasca, D. Bayart, "Resonant fluorescence line narrowing measurements in erbium-doped glasses for optical amplifiers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214204-214213 (2002).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

W. A. Arellano, M. Berendt, A. A. Rieznik, I. de Faria, H. L. Fragnito, "Observation of spectral hole burning in the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum of erbium doped fibers," Proc. IX Symp. Brasileiro de Microondas e Optoeletrônica 1, 1 (2000).

1997 (1)

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 9, 1578-1579 (1997).

1994 (1)

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, F. Pelle, P. Goldner, "Cooperative luminescence as a defining process for re-ions clustering in glasses and crystals," Opt. Mater. 4, 35-41 (1994).

1993 (1)

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, "Modeling of pair-induced quenching in erbium-doped silicate fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 5, 73-75 (1993).

1991 (2)

1990 (4)

F. Auzel, "Upconversion processes in coupled ion systems," J. Lumin. 45, 341-345 (1990).

E. Desurvire, J. Zyskind, J. Simpson, "Spectral gain hole-burning at 1.53 $\mu$m in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 2, 246-248 (1990).

E. Desurvire, J. Sulhoff, J. Zyskind, J. Simpson, "Study of spectral dependence of gain saturation and effect of inhomogeneous broadening in erbium-doped aluminosilicate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 2, 653-655 (1990).

J. Zyskind, E. Desurvire, J. Sulhoff, D. D. Giovanni, "Determination of homogeneous linewidth by spectral gain hole-burning in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier with geo2:sio2 core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 2, 869-871 (1990).

1989 (2)

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, "Transient gain and cross talk in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 14, 880-882 (1989).

R. Laming, L. Reekie, P. Morkel, D. Payne, "Multichannel crosstalk and pump noise characterisation of Er$^{3+}$-doped fibre amplifier pumped at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 25, 455-456 (1989).

1975 (1)

T. Kushida, E. Takushi, "Determination of homogeneous spectral widths by fluorescence line narrowing in $Ca (PO_{3})_{2} :Eu^{3+}$," Phys. Rev. B 12, 824-827 (1975).

1970 (1)

T. Miyakawa, D. L. Dexter, "Phonon sidebands, multiphonon relaxation of excited states, and phonon-assisted energy transfer between ions in solids," Phys. Rev. B 1, 2961-2969 (1970).

1963 (1)

A. Yariv, J. P. Gordon, "The laser," Proc. IEEE 51, 4-29 (1963).

1960 (1)

T. H. Maiman, "Stimulated optical radiation in ruby," Nature 187, 493-494 (1960).

1958 (1)

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, "Infrared and optical masers," Phys. Rev. 112, 1940-1949 (1958).

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Laming, L. Reekie, P. Morkel, D. Payne, "Multichannel crosstalk and pump noise characterisation of Er$^{3+}$-doped fibre amplifier pumped at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 25, 455-456 (1989).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett (3)

E. Desurvire, J. Zyskind, J. Simpson, "Spectral gain hole-burning at 1.53 $\mu$m in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 2, 246-248 (1990).

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, "Modeling of pair-induced quenching in erbium-doped silicate fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 5, 73-75 (1993).

E. Desurvire, J. Sulhoff, J. Zyskind, J. Simpson, "Study of spectral dependence of gain saturation and effect of inhomogeneous broadening in erbium-doped aluminosilicate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 2, 653-655 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett (1)

J. Zyskind, E. Desurvire, J. Sulhoff, D. D. Giovanni, "Determination of homogeneous linewidth by spectral gain hole-burning in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier with geo2:sio2 core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 2, 869-871 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett (1)

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 9, 1578-1579 (1997).

J. Lumin (1)

R. Peretti, A. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, E. Burov, L. Gasca, "Resonant fluorescence line narrowing and gain spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifier," J. Lumin 128, 1010-1012 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

C. Giles, E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).

J. Lumin. (1)

F. Auzel, "Upconversion processes in coupled ion systems," J. Lumin. 45, 341-345 (1990).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

S. Ono, S. Tanabe, M. Nishihara, E. Ishikawa, "Study on the dynamics of a gain spectral hole in a silica-based erbium-doped fiber at 77 k," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 1594-1599 (2005).

Nature (1)

T. H. Maiman, "Stimulated optical radiation in ruby," Nature 187, 493-494 (1960).

Opt. Mater. (1)

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, F. Pelle, P. Goldner, "Cooperative luminescence as a defining process for re-ions clustering in glasses and crystals," Opt. Mater. 4, 35-41 (1994).

Opt. Exp. (1)

R. Peretti, A. M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, E. Burov, A. Pastouret, "Evidence of two erbium sites in standard aluminosilicate glass for EDFA," Opt. Exp. 18, 20661-20666 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

L. Bigot, A.-M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, L. Gasca, D. Bayart, "Resonant fluorescence line narrowing measurements in erbium-doped glasses for optical amplifiers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214204-214213 (2002).

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, "Infrared and optical masers," Phys. Rev. 112, 1940-1949 (1958).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

T. Miyakawa, D. L. Dexter, "Phonon sidebands, multiphonon relaxation of excited states, and phonon-assisted energy transfer between ions in solids," Phys. Rev. B 1, 2961-2969 (1970).

T. Kushida, E. Takushi, "Determination of homogeneous spectral widths by fluorescence line narrowing in $Ca (PO_{3})_{2} :Eu^{3+}$," Phys. Rev. B 12, 824-827 (1975).

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. Yariv, J. P. Gordon, "The laser," Proc. IEEE 51, 4-29 (1963).

Proc. IX Symp. Brasileiro de Microondas e Optoeletrônica (1)

W. A. Arellano, M. Berendt, A. A. Rieznik, I. de Faria, H. L. Fragnito, "Observation of spectral hole burning in the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum of erbium doped fibers," Proc. IX Symp. Brasileiro de Microondas e Optoeletrônica 1, 1 (2000).

Other (4)

M. Yadlowsky, L. Button, "Pump-mediated inhomogeneous effects in EDFAs and their impact ongain spectral modeling," Proc. OFC'98 Tech. Dig. (1998) pp. 35-36.

R. Mears, L. Reekie, J. Jauncey, P. D. N. , "High-gain rare-earth rare-earth-doped fiber amplifier at 1.54 $\mu$m," Proc. OFC (1987) pp. 277.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2002).

M. N. Shunsuke Ono, S. Tanabe, E. Ishikawa, "Origin of multi-hole structure in gain spectrum of erbium-doped fiber amplifier," Proc. OSA Trends Opt. Photo (2005).

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