Abstract

We present a mathematical model for a wavelength-division multiplexed self-healing optical fiber bus network to interconnect an array of sensors. The network uses protection switching to reestablish service after the failure of one or more of its constituent elements. Our model is a matrix-vector formalism that divides the network into blocks. It predicts which wavelengths arrive at the receiver node when damage has occurred in one or more places. We study single and multiple failures within one block, categorizing and tabulating all combinations of surviving wavelengths. In this way, we correlate the received wavelengths with the failure location(s). The network thus provides “self-diagnosis,” which we define to be the determination of its own sites of failure from network management information, without requiring external resources.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. K. Hotate, "Fiber sensor technology today," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6616-6625 (2006).
  2. R. Hernandez Lorenzo, M. López-Amo, P. Urquhart, "Single and double distributed optical amplifier fiber bus network with wavelength division multiplexing for photonic sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 485-489 (1998).
  3. V. Montoya, M. Lopez-Amo, S. Abad, "Improved double-fiber-bus with distributed optical amplification for wavelength division multiplexing of photonic sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1270-1272 (2000).
  4. T. H. Wu, Fiber Network Service Survivability (Artech House, 1992).
  5. T. E. Stern, K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: A Layered Approach (Addison Wesley Longman Inc., 1999).
  6. J.-P. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical, Sonet-SDH, IP and MPLS (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).
  7. P.-C. Peng, H.-Y. Tseng, H. Chi, "Self-healing fibre grating sensor system using tunable multi-port fibre laser for intensity division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 38, 1510-1512 (2002).
  8. P.-C. Peng, K.-Y. Huang, "Fiber Bragg grating sensor system with two-level ring architecture," Sensors 9, 309-313 (2009).
  9. E. López Izquierdo, P. Urquhart, M. López-Amo, "Protection architectures for WDM optical fiber bus sensor arrays," J. Eng., Comput. Archit. 1, 1-18 (2007) Scientific Journals International, ISSN 1934-7197.
  10. M. Fernández Vallejo, R. A. Perez-Herrera, C. Elosua, S. Díaz, P. Urquhart, C. Bariáin, M. Lopez-Amo, "Resilient amplified double-ring optical networks to multiplex optical fiber sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1301-1306 (2009).
  11. E. López Izquierdo, P. Urquhart, M. López-Amo, "Optical fiber bus protection architecture for the networking of sensors," IEEE Int. Symp. Intell. Signal Process. (2007) pp. 1-6.
  12. O. García López, K. Schires, P. Urquhart, N. Gueyne, B. Duhamel, "Optical fiber bus protection network to multiplex sensors: amplification by remotely pumped EDFAs," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58, 2845-2851 (2009).
  13. D. Anderson, L. Johnson, F. G. Bell, Troubleshooting Optical Fiber Networks: Understanding and Using Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry (Academic, 2004).
  14. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 2009).
  15. H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (CRC Press, 2010).
  16. "Air Assisted Installation of Optical Fibre Cables," International Telecommunications Union (ITU-T) Rec. L.57 (05/2003).

2009 (3)

P.-C. Peng, K.-Y. Huang, "Fiber Bragg grating sensor system with two-level ring architecture," Sensors 9, 309-313 (2009).

M. Fernández Vallejo, R. A. Perez-Herrera, C. Elosua, S. Díaz, P. Urquhart, C. Bariáin, M. Lopez-Amo, "Resilient amplified double-ring optical networks to multiplex optical fiber sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1301-1306 (2009).

O. García López, K. Schires, P. Urquhart, N. Gueyne, B. Duhamel, "Optical fiber bus protection network to multiplex sensors: amplification by remotely pumped EDFAs," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58, 2845-2851 (2009).

2007 (1)

E. López Izquierdo, P. Urquhart, M. López-Amo, "Protection architectures for WDM optical fiber bus sensor arrays," J. Eng., Comput. Archit. 1, 1-18 (2007) Scientific Journals International, ISSN 1934-7197.

2006 (1)

K. Hotate, "Fiber sensor technology today," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6616-6625 (2006).

2002 (1)

P.-C. Peng, H.-Y. Tseng, H. Chi, "Self-healing fibre grating sensor system using tunable multi-port fibre laser for intensity division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 38, 1510-1512 (2002).

2000 (1)

V. Montoya, M. Lopez-Amo, S. Abad, "Improved double-fiber-bus with distributed optical amplification for wavelength division multiplexing of photonic sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1270-1272 (2000).

1998 (1)

R. Hernandez Lorenzo, M. López-Amo, P. Urquhart, "Single and double distributed optical amplifier fiber bus network with wavelength division multiplexing for photonic sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 485-489 (1998).

Electron. Lett. (1)

P.-C. Peng, H.-Y. Tseng, H. Chi, "Self-healing fibre grating sensor system using tunable multi-port fibre laser for intensity division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 38, 1510-1512 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

V. Montoya, M. Lopez-Amo, S. Abad, "Improved double-fiber-bus with distributed optical amplification for wavelength division multiplexing of photonic sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1270-1272 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

O. García López, K. Schires, P. Urquhart, N. Gueyne, B. Duhamel, "Optical fiber bus protection network to multiplex sensors: amplification by remotely pumped EDFAs," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58, 2845-2851 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. Fernández Vallejo, R. A. Perez-Herrera, C. Elosua, S. Díaz, P. Urquhart, C. Bariáin, M. Lopez-Amo, "Resilient amplified double-ring optical networks to multiplex optical fiber sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1301-1306 (2009).

J. Eng., Comput. Archit. (1)

E. López Izquierdo, P. Urquhart, M. López-Amo, "Protection architectures for WDM optical fiber bus sensor arrays," J. Eng., Comput. Archit. 1, 1-18 (2007) Scientific Journals International, ISSN 1934-7197.

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

R. Hernandez Lorenzo, M. López-Amo, P. Urquhart, "Single and double distributed optical amplifier fiber bus network with wavelength division multiplexing for photonic sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 485-489 (1998).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Hotate, "Fiber sensor technology today," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6616-6625 (2006).

Sensors (1)

P.-C. Peng, K.-Y. Huang, "Fiber Bragg grating sensor system with two-level ring architecture," Sensors 9, 309-313 (2009).

Other (8)

T. H. Wu, Fiber Network Service Survivability (Artech House, 1992).

T. E. Stern, K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: A Layered Approach (Addison Wesley Longman Inc., 1999).

J.-P. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical, Sonet-SDH, IP and MPLS (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).

E. López Izquierdo, P. Urquhart, M. López-Amo, "Optical fiber bus protection architecture for the networking of sensors," IEEE Int. Symp. Intell. Signal Process. (2007) pp. 1-6.

D. Anderson, L. Johnson, F. G. Bell, Troubleshooting Optical Fiber Networks: Understanding and Using Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry (Academic, 2004).

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 2009).

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (CRC Press, 2010).

"Air Assisted Installation of Optical Fibre Cables," International Telecommunications Union (ITU-T) Rec. L.57 (05/2003).

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