Abstract

A novel approach to implementing instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM) based on an amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay loop and a broadband incoherent light source (ILS) is proposed, analyzed, and experimentally demonstrated. Since the semiconductor optical amplifier-based fiber-optic delay loop has an infinite impulse response that varies from a large positive value to negative infinity on a log scale, a unique relationship between the output power, and the frequency of the input continuous-wave (CW) microwave signal is established. Meanwhile, it is experimentally shown that the use of the ILS can greatly improve the stability of the proposed IFM system. When the input power of CW microwave signal is within the range of -7 dBm to -16 dBm, the measured errors remain within ±400 KHz over a frequency range of 6.94–6.958 GHz. The measurement error, the complexity and cost of the proposed IFM system can be considerably reduced by only using one ILS, one modulator, and one photodetector. Since the proposed IFM system has a capability of optical integration, it is theoretically estimated that the measurement range can be extended to 20 GHz with a measurement resolution of 1.36 dB/GHz.

© 2011 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. D. C. Schleher, Electronic Warfare in the Information Age. (Artech House, 1999).
  2. J. Capmany, D. Novak, "Microwave photonics combines two worlds," Nat. Photon. 1, 319-330 ( 2007).
  3. L. V. T. Nguyen, "Microwave photonic technique for frequency measurement of simultaneous signals," EEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 642-644 (2009).
  4. L. V. T. Nguyen, "Microwave frequency measurement utilising frequency to time mapping," Proc. Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2008. Jointly Held 2008 Asia-Pacific Microw. Photon. Conf. MWP/APMP 2008. (2008) pp. 330-332.
  5. D. B. Hunter, L. G. Edvell, M. A. Englund, "Wideband microwave photonic channelised receiver," Proc. Int.Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2005. MWP 2005. (2005) pp. 249-252.
  6. W. Wenshen, R. L. Davis, T. J. Jung, R. Lodenkamper, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, M. C. Wu, "Characterization of a coherent optical RF channelizer based on a diffraction grating ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 49, 1996-2001 (2001).
  7. M. W. Austin, "Integrated optical microwave channeliser," Proc. Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhibit. (ACP), 2009 Asia (2009) pp. 1-7.
  8. S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, M. W. Austin, J. Canning, A. Mitchell, "A microwave channelizer and spectroscope based on an integrated optical Bragg-grating Fabry–Perot and integrated hybrid Fresnel lens system," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 868-872 (2006).
  9. X. H. Zou, J. P. Yao, "An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1989-1991 (2008).
  10. L. V. T. Nguyen, D. B. Hunter, "A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1188-1190 (2006).
  11. X. M. Zhang, H. Chi, S. L. Zheng, X. F. Jin, J. P. Yao, "Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using an optical phase modulator," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 19, 422-424 (2009).
  12. J. Q. Zhou, S. N. Fu, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, C. L. Lin, "Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using photonic technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1069-1071 (2009).
  13. J. Q. Li, S. N. Fu, K. Xu, J. Q. Zhou, P. Shum, J. Wu, J. T. Lin, "Photonic-assisted microwave frequency measurement with higher resolution and tunable range ," Opt. Lett. 34, 743-745 ( 2009).
  14. X. H. Zou, S. L. Pan, J. P. Yao, "Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved measurement range and resolution based on simultaneous phase modulation and intensity modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5314-5320 (2009).
  15. J. Q. Zhou, S. Fu, P. P. Shum, S. Aditya, L. Xia, J. Li, X. Sun, K. Xu, "Photonic measurement of microwave frequency based on phase modulation," Opt. Exp. 17, 7217-7221 (2009).
  16. H. Chi, X. H. Zou, J. P. Yao, "An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1249-1251 (2008).
  17. X. H. Zou, H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57, 505-511 (2009).
  18. M. V. Drummond, P. Monteiro, R. N. Nogueira, "Photonic RF instantaneous frequency measurement system by means of a polarization-domain interferometer," Opt. Exp. 17, 5433-5438 (2009).
  19. Z. Li, B. Yang, H. Chi, X. M. Zhang, S. L. Zheng, X. F. Jin, "Photonic instantaneous measurement of microwave frequency using fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 283, 396-399 ( 2010).
  20. N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, A. Mitchell, "Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1521-1523 (2008).
  21. J. Q. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, J. P. Yao, "Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a photonic microwave filter with an infinite impulse response," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 682-684 (2010) vol..
  22. G. Ning, L. Cheng, J. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. Shum, "Period-generating different modulation formats by inserting an electro-absorption modulator in a Sagnac fiber loop," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 91, 483-487 (2008).
  23. B. Vizoso, C. Vazquez, R. Civera, M. Lopez-Amo, M. A. Muriel, "Amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay lines," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 294-305 (1994).
  24. M. C. Vazquez, B. Vizoso, M. Lopez-Amo, M. A. Muriel, "Single and double amplified recirculating delay lines as fibre-optic filters," Electron. Lett. 28, 1017-1019 (1992).
  25. B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, M. Tur, H. J. Shaw, "Fiber-optic lattice signal processing," Proc. IEEE 72, 909-930 (1984).
  26. B. Moslehi, "Fibre-optic filters employing optical amplifiers to provide design flexibility," Electron. Lett. 28, 226-228 (1992).
  27. M. S. Leeson, F. P. Payne, "Predicted performance of Franz-Keldysh effect optical reflection modulators and comparisons with similar multiple quantum well-based devices," IEE Proc.—Optoelectron. 141, 257-264 (1994).
  28. J. B. Tsui, Microwave Receivers with Electronic Warfare Applications (SciTech Publishing , 2005).
  29. V. M. Menon, W. Tong, S. R. Forrest, "Control of quality factor and critical coupling in microring resonators through integration of a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1343-1345 (2004).

2010 (1)

J. Q. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, J. P. Yao, "Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a photonic microwave filter with an infinite impulse response," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 682-684 (2010) vol..

2009 (7)

X. H. Zou, H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57, 505-511 (2009).

M. V. Drummond, P. Monteiro, R. N. Nogueira, "Photonic RF instantaneous frequency measurement system by means of a polarization-domain interferometer," Opt. Exp. 17, 5433-5438 (2009).

L. V. T. Nguyen, "Microwave photonic technique for frequency measurement of simultaneous signals," EEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 642-644 (2009).

X. M. Zhang, H. Chi, S. L. Zheng, X. F. Jin, J. P. Yao, "Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using an optical phase modulator," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 19, 422-424 (2009).

J. Q. Zhou, S. N. Fu, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, C. L. Lin, "Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using photonic technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1069-1071 (2009).

X. H. Zou, S. L. Pan, J. P. Yao, "Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved measurement range and resolution based on simultaneous phase modulation and intensity modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5314-5320 (2009).

J. Q. Zhou, S. Fu, P. P. Shum, S. Aditya, L. Xia, J. Li, X. Sun, K. Xu, "Photonic measurement of microwave frequency based on phase modulation," Opt. Exp. 17, 7217-7221 (2009).

2008 (4)

H. Chi, X. H. Zou, J. P. Yao, "An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1249-1251 (2008).

X. H. Zou, J. P. Yao, "An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1989-1991 (2008).

N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, A. Mitchell, "Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1521-1523 (2008).

G. Ning, L. Cheng, J. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. Shum, "Period-generating different modulation formats by inserting an electro-absorption modulator in a Sagnac fiber loop," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 91, 483-487 (2008).

2006 (2)

S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, M. W. Austin, J. Canning, A. Mitchell, "A microwave channelizer and spectroscope based on an integrated optical Bragg-grating Fabry–Perot and integrated hybrid Fresnel lens system," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 868-872 (2006).

L. V. T. Nguyen, D. B. Hunter, "A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1188-1190 (2006).

2004 (1)

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, S. R. Forrest, "Control of quality factor and critical coupling in microring resonators through integration of a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1343-1345 (2004).

2001 (1)

W. Wenshen, R. L. Davis, T. J. Jung, R. Lodenkamper, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, M. C. Wu, "Characterization of a coherent optical RF channelizer based on a diffraction grating ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 49, 1996-2001 (2001).

1994 (2)

B. Vizoso, C. Vazquez, R. Civera, M. Lopez-Amo, M. A. Muriel, "Amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay lines," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 294-305 (1994).

M. S. Leeson, F. P. Payne, "Predicted performance of Franz-Keldysh effect optical reflection modulators and comparisons with similar multiple quantum well-based devices," IEE Proc.—Optoelectron. 141, 257-264 (1994).

1992 (2)

M. C. Vazquez, B. Vizoso, M. Lopez-Amo, M. A. Muriel, "Single and double amplified recirculating delay lines as fibre-optic filters," Electron. Lett. 28, 1017-1019 (1992).

B. Moslehi, "Fibre-optic filters employing optical amplifiers to provide design flexibility," Electron. Lett. 28, 226-228 (1992).

1984 (1)

B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, M. Tur, H. J. Shaw, "Fiber-optic lattice signal processing," Proc. IEEE 72, 909-930 (1984).

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

G. Ning, L. Cheng, J. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. Shum, "Period-generating different modulation formats by inserting an electro-absorption modulator in a Sagnac fiber loop," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 91, 483-487 (2008).

EEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. V. T. Nguyen, "Microwave photonic technique for frequency measurement of simultaneous signals," EEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 642-644 (2009).

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. C. Vazquez, B. Vizoso, M. Lopez-Amo, M. A. Muriel, "Single and double amplified recirculating delay lines as fibre-optic filters," Electron. Lett. 28, 1017-1019 (1992).

B. Moslehi, "Fibre-optic filters employing optical amplifiers to provide design flexibility," Electron. Lett. 28, 226-228 (1992).

IEE Proc.—Optoelectron. (1)

M. S. Leeson, F. P. Payne, "Predicted performance of Franz-Keldysh effect optical reflection modulators and comparisons with similar multiple quantum well-based devices," IEE Proc.—Optoelectron. 141, 257-264 (1994).

IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. (1)

X. M. Zhang, H. Chi, S. L. Zheng, X. F. Jin, J. P. Yao, "Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using an optical phase modulator," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 19, 422-424 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

J. Q. Zhou, S. N. Fu, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, C. L. Lin, "Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using photonic technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1069-1071 (2009).

H. Chi, X. H. Zou, J. P. Yao, "An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1249-1251 (2008).

X. H. Zou, J. P. Yao, "An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1989-1991 (2008).

L. V. T. Nguyen, D. B. Hunter, "A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1188-1190 (2006).

N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, A. Mitchell, "Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1521-1523 (2008).

J. Q. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, J. P. Yao, "Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a photonic microwave filter with an infinite impulse response," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 682-684 (2010) vol..

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, S. R. Forrest, "Control of quality factor and critical coupling in microring resonators through integration of a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1343-1345 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

X. H. Zou, H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57, 505-511 (2009).

S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, M. W. Austin, J. Canning, A. Mitchell, "A microwave channelizer and spectroscope based on an integrated optical Bragg-grating Fabry–Perot and integrated hybrid Fresnel lens system," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 868-872 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. (1)

W. Wenshen, R. L. Davis, T. J. Jung, R. Lodenkamper, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, M. C. Wu, "Characterization of a coherent optical RF channelizer based on a diffraction grating ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 49, 1996-2001 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

X. H. Zou, S. L. Pan, J. P. Yao, "Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved measurement range and resolution based on simultaneous phase modulation and intensity modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5314-5320 (2009).

B. Vizoso, C. Vazquez, R. Civera, M. Lopez-Amo, M. A. Muriel, "Amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay lines," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 294-305 (1994).

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. Capmany, D. Novak, "Microwave photonics combines two worlds," Nat. Photon. 1, 319-330 ( 2007).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Li, B. Yang, H. Chi, X. M. Zhang, S. L. Zheng, X. F. Jin, "Photonic instantaneous measurement of microwave frequency using fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 283, 396-399 ( 2010).

Opt. Exp. (2)

M. V. Drummond, P. Monteiro, R. N. Nogueira, "Photonic RF instantaneous frequency measurement system by means of a polarization-domain interferometer," Opt. Exp. 17, 5433-5438 (2009).

J. Q. Zhou, S. Fu, P. P. Shum, S. Aditya, L. Xia, J. Li, X. Sun, K. Xu, "Photonic measurement of microwave frequency based on phase modulation," Opt. Exp. 17, 7217-7221 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, M. Tur, H. J. Shaw, "Fiber-optic lattice signal processing," Proc. IEEE 72, 909-930 (1984).

Other (5)

J. B. Tsui, Microwave Receivers with Electronic Warfare Applications (SciTech Publishing , 2005).

D. C. Schleher, Electronic Warfare in the Information Age. (Artech House, 1999).

L. V. T. Nguyen, "Microwave frequency measurement utilising frequency to time mapping," Proc. Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2008. Jointly Held 2008 Asia-Pacific Microw. Photon. Conf. MWP/APMP 2008. (2008) pp. 330-332.

D. B. Hunter, L. G. Edvell, M. A. Englund, "Wideband microwave photonic channelised receiver," Proc. Int.Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2005. MWP 2005. (2005) pp. 249-252.

M. W. Austin, "Integrated optical microwave channeliser," Proc. Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhibit. (ACP), 2009 Asia (2009) pp. 1-7.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.