Abstract

This paper presents an implementation of a modulation technique which is effective in obscuring spectral phase encoded time-spreading (SPECTS) optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) data streams from eavesdroppers tapping into single-user uplinks. This data modulation technique employs a finite-state Markov chain following a four-state trellis to encode user data in the electronic domain. The encoding redistributes the SPECTS O-CDMA user data bits across four different waveforms to defeat the eavesdropper attacks on upstream links via power detectors or differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) receivers. The four-state encoder-decoder is implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with high-speed serial transceivers. A SPECTS O-CDMA testbed with four-state encoded data modulation at up to 2.5 Gb/s/user is demonstrated and its single user link security is tested using a DPSK demodulator to emulate the eavesdropping detection. The security test verifies that this modulation technique effectively prevented interception by DPSK detection. The four-state coding can be extended to be time variable through switching among several trellis state definitions to achieve more rigorous security.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic, J. Budin, "Secure optical network architectures utilizing wavelength hopping/time spreading codes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 573-575 (1995).
  2. A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 83-87 (2002).
  3. N. Karafolas, D. Uttamchandani, "Optical fiber code division multiple access networks: A review," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 149-168 (1996).
  4. T. H. Shake, "Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1652-1663 (2005).
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  8. F. Xue, Y. Du, S. J. B. Yoo, Z. Ding, "Security issues on spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA with phase-masking scheme," Proc. OFC (2006) pp. 3.
  9. Z. Wang, A. Chowdhury, P. R. Prucnal, "Optical CDMA code wavelength conversion using PPLN to improve transmission security," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 383-385 (2009).
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  11. V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s capacity (32-user $\times 10$ Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed with enhanced spectral efficiency through forward error correction," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).
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  13. Y. Du, F. Xue, S. J. B. Yoo, Z. Ding, "Security enhancement of SPECTS O-CDMA through concealment against upstream DPSK eavesdropping," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2799-2806 (2007).
  14. C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "Security enhanced SPECTS O-CDMA with four-state encoded data modulation," Proc. OFC (2010).
  15. X. P. Zhou, F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, J. H. Baek, S. Cheung, M. Shearn, A. Scherer, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liu, W. T. Tsang, S. J. B. Yoo, "16-channel ${\times}100$-GHz monolithically integrated O-CDMA transmitter with SPECTS encoder and seven 10-GHz mode-locked lasers," Proc. OFC (2010).
  16. N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement," Nature Photon. 4, 248-254 (2010).

2010 (1)

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement," Nature Photon. 4, 248-254 (2010).

2009 (2)

T. Yokohama, T. Tsujioka, "Security evaluation of optical CDMA system with statistical approach," Proc. ICACT 2009 03, 1575-1579 (2009).

Z. Wang, A. Chowdhury, P. R. Prucnal, "Optical CDMA code wavelength conversion using PPLN to improve transmission security," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 383-385 (2009).

2007 (3)

Y.-T. Chang, C.-C. Sue, J.-F. Huang, "Robust design for reconfigurable coder/decoders to protect against eavesdropping in spectral amplitude coding optical CDMA networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1931-1948 (2007).

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s capacity (32-user $\times 10$ Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed with enhanced spectral efficiency through forward error correction," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).

Y. Du, F. Xue, S. J. B. Yoo, Z. Ding, "Security enhancement of SPECTS O-CDMA through concealment against upstream DPSK eavesdropping," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2799-2806 (2007).

2006 (1)

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Experimental investigation of security issues in O-CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4228-4234 (2006).

2005 (3)

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, A. M. Weiner, "Experimental investigation of security issues in OCDMA: A code-switching scheme," Electron. Lett. 41, 817-819 (2005).

T. H. Shake, "Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1652-1663 (2005).

T. H. Shake, "Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 655-670 (2005).

2002 (1)

A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 83-87 (2002).

1996 (1)

N. Karafolas, D. Uttamchandani, "Optical fiber code division multiple access networks: A review," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 149-168 (1996).

1995 (1)

L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic, J. Budin, "Secure optical network architectures utilizing wavelength hopping/time spreading codes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 573-575 (1995).

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, A. M. Weiner, "Experimental investigation of security issues in OCDMA: A code-switching scheme," Electron. Lett. 41, 817-819 (2005).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 83-87 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Z. Wang, A. Chowdhury, P. R. Prucnal, "Optical CDMA code wavelength conversion using PPLN to improve transmission security," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 383-385 (2009).

L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic, J. Budin, "Secure optical network architectures utilizing wavelength hopping/time spreading codes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 573-575 (1995).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

Y. Du, F. Xue, S. J. B. Yoo, Z. Ding, "Security enhancement of SPECTS O-CDMA through concealment against upstream DPSK eavesdropping," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2799-2806 (2007).

Y.-T. Chang, C.-C. Sue, J.-F. Huang, "Robust design for reconfigurable coder/decoders to protect against eavesdropping in spectral amplitude coding optical CDMA networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1931-1948 (2007).

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s capacity (32-user $\times 10$ Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed with enhanced spectral efficiency through forward error correction," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Experimental investigation of security issues in O-CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4228-4234 (2006).

T. H. Shake, "Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1652-1663 (2005).

T. H. Shake, "Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 655-670 (2005).

Nature Photon. (1)

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement," Nature Photon. 4, 248-254 (2010).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

N. Karafolas, D. Uttamchandani, "Optical fiber code division multiple access networks: A review," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 149-168 (1996).

Proc. ICACT 2009 (1)

T. Yokohama, T. Tsujioka, "Security evaluation of optical CDMA system with statistical approach," Proc. ICACT 2009 03, 1575-1579 (2009).

Other (3)

F. Xue, Y. Du, S. J. B. Yoo, Z. Ding, "Security issues on spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA with phase-masking scheme," Proc. OFC (2006) pp. 3.

C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "Security enhanced SPECTS O-CDMA with four-state encoded data modulation," Proc. OFC (2010).

X. P. Zhou, F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, J. H. Baek, S. Cheung, M. Shearn, A. Scherer, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liu, W. T. Tsang, S. J. B. Yoo, "16-channel ${\times}100$-GHz monolithically integrated O-CDMA transmitter with SPECTS encoder and seven 10-GHz mode-locked lasers," Proc. OFC (2010).

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