Abstract

This paper presents a detailed analysis of racetrack resonators on silicon on insulator substrates. Both the temperature effects and the particularities of silicon nanophotonics are considered throughout the approach. This paper provides a detailed description of the numerical modeling and its application to different designs, while providing several charts and fitting equations. The results presented in this paper can be applied to three major applications: Thermo-optical tuning of optical resonators, thermo-optical modulator and wide range/high sensitivity temperature sensors. While quantifying the temperature effects, this paper also provides useful answers on how critical the temperature parameter is in the optical cavity behaviour.

© 2010 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Pavesi, G. Guillot, Optical Interconnects: The Silicon Approach (Springer, 2006).
  2. M. L. Calvo, V. Lakshminarayanan, Optical Waveguides—From Theory to Applied Technologies (CRC Press, 2007).
  3. W. Bogaerts, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, (2006).
  4. W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
  5. F. Xia, L. Sekaric, M. O'Boyle, Y. Vlasov, "Coupled resonator optical waveguides based on silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041122- (2006).
  6. J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. H. Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, W. Henschel, H. Kurz, "Ultrahigh-quality-factor silicon-on-insulator microringresonator," Opt. Lett. 29, 2861-2863 (2004).
  7. G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, "High efficiency grating coupler between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and perfectly vertical optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1495-1497 (2007).
  8. G. Rostami, A. Rostami, An Ultra High-Precision Temperature Sensor Design Based on Two-Port Ring Resonator (SPIE, 2007).
  9. M. Geis, S. Spector, R. Williamson, T. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
  10. A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, "Asymmetrically coupled silicon-on-insulator microring resonators for compact add-drop multiplexers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 921-923 (2003).
  11. D. Rabus, Integrated Ring Resonators (Springer, 2007).
  12. M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, "Thermo-optic tuning and switching in SOI waveguide Fabry–Perot microcavities," Opt. Exp. 15, 7557-7563 (2007).
  13. S. Mandal, S. K. Ghosh, T. K. Basak, "Modeling and analysis of fiber optic ring resonator performance as temperature sensor," Sensors & Transducers J. 82, 1431-1442 (2007).
  14. A. Fallahkhair, K. Li, T. Murphy, "Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1423-1431 (2008).
  15. M. Heiblum, J. Harris, "Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 75-83 (1975).
  16. C. Doerr, H. Kogelnik, "Dielectric waveguide theory," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1176-1187 (2008).
  17. N. Rouger, L. Chrostowski, "Simulation of coupling between parallel SOI nanowaveguides and its dependence on temperature," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Optical MEMs and Nanophoton. (2009) pp. 103-104.
  18. H. H. Li, "Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561-658 (1980).
  19. C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, "Temperature dependence of refractive index of glassy SIO$_2$ in the infrared wavelength range," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 1315-1320 (2000).
  20. A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford Univ. Press, 2006).
  21. Y. Sun, X. Jiang, Y. Hao, J. Yang, M. Wang, "Calculation of the coupling coefficients for spatial waveguides using the field matching method," J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 095305- (2008) (4pp).
  22. A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919-933 (1973).
  23. Y. Okada, Y. Tokumaru, "Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500 k," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 314-320 (1984).
  24. S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, M. Qi, "Modeling and measurement of losses in silicon-on-insulator resonators and bends," Opt. Exp. 15, 10 553-10 561 (2007).
  25. R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
  26. Y. Vlasov, S. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Exp. 12, 1622-1631 (2004).
  27. A. Delage, D.-X. Xu, R. W. Mckinnon, E. Post, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, C. Storey, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, "Wavelength-dependent model of a ring resonator sensor excited by a directional coupler," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1172-1180 (2009).
  28. F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Mode conversion losses in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based racetrack resonators," Opt. Exp. 14, 3872-3886 (2006).
  29. Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-A. Huang, T.-L. Chen, "A vertical germanium thermooptic modulator for optical interconnects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 245-247 (2009).

2009 (2)

A. Delage, D.-X. Xu, R. W. Mckinnon, E. Post, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, C. Storey, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, "Wavelength-dependent model of a ring resonator sensor excited by a directional coupler," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1172-1180 (2009).

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-A. Huang, T.-L. Chen, "A vertical germanium thermooptic modulator for optical interconnects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 245-247 (2009).

2008 (3)

A. Fallahkhair, K. Li, T. Murphy, "Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1423-1431 (2008).

C. Doerr, H. Kogelnik, "Dielectric waveguide theory," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1176-1187 (2008).

Y. Sun, X. Jiang, Y. Hao, J. Yang, M. Wang, "Calculation of the coupling coefficients for spatial waveguides using the field matching method," J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 095305- (2008) (4pp).

2007 (4)

G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, "High efficiency grating coupler between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and perfectly vertical optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1495-1497 (2007).

M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, "Thermo-optic tuning and switching in SOI waveguide Fabry–Perot microcavities," Opt. Exp. 15, 7557-7563 (2007).

S. Mandal, S. K. Ghosh, T. K. Basak, "Modeling and analysis of fiber optic ring resonator performance as temperature sensor," Sensors & Transducers J. 82, 1431-1442 (2007).

S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, M. Qi, "Modeling and measurement of losses in silicon-on-insulator resonators and bends," Opt. Exp. 15, 10 553-10 561 (2007).

2006 (3)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Mode conversion losses in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based racetrack resonators," Opt. Exp. 14, 3872-3886 (2006).

W. Bogaerts, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, (2006).

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, M. O'Boyle, Y. Vlasov, "Coupled resonator optical waveguides based on silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041122- (2006).

2005 (1)

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).

2004 (3)

J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. H. Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, W. Henschel, H. Kurz, "Ultrahigh-quality-factor silicon-on-insulator microringresonator," Opt. Lett. 29, 2861-2863 (2004).

M. Geis, S. Spector, R. Williamson, T. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).

Y. Vlasov, S. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Exp. 12, 1622-1631 (2004).

2003 (1)

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, "Asymmetrically coupled silicon-on-insulator microring resonators for compact add-drop multiplexers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 921-923 (2003).

2000 (1)

C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, "Temperature dependence of refractive index of glassy SIO$_2$ in the infrared wavelength range," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 1315-1320 (2000).

1987 (1)

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).

1984 (1)

Y. Okada, Y. Tokumaru, "Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500 k," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 314-320 (1984).

1980 (1)

H. H. Li, "Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561-658 (1980).

1975 (1)

M. Heiblum, J. Harris, "Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 75-83 (1975).

1973 (1)

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919-933 (1973).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, M. O'Boyle, Y. Vlasov, "Coupled resonator optical waveguides based on silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041122- (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. Heiblum, J. Harris, "Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 75-83 (1975).

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919-933 (1973).

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Bogaerts, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. Geis, S. Spector, R. Williamson, T. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, "Asymmetrically coupled silicon-on-insulator microring resonators for compact add-drop multiplexers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 921-923 (2003).

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-A. Huang, T.-L. Chen, "A vertical germanium thermooptic modulator for optical interconnects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 245-247 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Okada, Y. Tokumaru, "Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500 k," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 314-320 (1984).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

A. Fallahkhair, K. Li, T. Murphy, "Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1423-1431 (2008).

A. Delage, D.-X. Xu, R. W. Mckinnon, E. Post, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, C. Storey, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, "Wavelength-dependent model of a ring resonator sensor excited by a directional coupler," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1172-1180 (2009).

C. Doerr, H. Kogelnik, "Dielectric waveguide theory," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1176-1187 (2008).

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).

J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

Y. Sun, X. Jiang, Y. Hao, J. Yang, M. Wang, "Calculation of the coupling coefficients for spatial waveguides using the field matching method," J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 095305- (2008) (4pp).

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

H. H. Li, "Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561-658 (1980).

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, "Temperature dependence of refractive index of glassy SIO$_2$ in the infrared wavelength range," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 1315-1320 (2000).

Opt. Exp. (4)

M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, "Thermo-optic tuning and switching in SOI waveguide Fabry–Perot microcavities," Opt. Exp. 15, 7557-7563 (2007).

S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, M. Qi, "Modeling and measurement of losses in silicon-on-insulator resonators and bends," Opt. Exp. 15, 10 553-10 561 (2007).

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Mode conversion losses in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based racetrack resonators," Opt. Exp. 14, 3872-3886 (2006).

Y. Vlasov, S. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Exp. 12, 1622-1631 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sensors & Transducers J. (1)

S. Mandal, S. K. Ghosh, T. K. Basak, "Modeling and analysis of fiber optic ring resonator performance as temperature sensor," Sensors & Transducers J. 82, 1431-1442 (2007).

Other (6)

D. Rabus, Integrated Ring Resonators (Springer, 2007).

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford Univ. Press, 2006).

N. Rouger, L. Chrostowski, "Simulation of coupling between parallel SOI nanowaveguides and its dependence on temperature," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Optical MEMs and Nanophoton. (2009) pp. 103-104.

G. Rostami, A. Rostami, An Ultra High-Precision Temperature Sensor Design Based on Two-Port Ring Resonator (SPIE, 2007).

L. Pavesi, G. Guillot, Optical Interconnects: The Silicon Approach (Springer, 2006).

M. L. Calvo, V. Lakshminarayanan, Optical Waveguides—From Theory to Applied Technologies (CRC Press, 2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.