Abstract

We propose a novel optical 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid consisting of a paired-interference based 2$\,\times\,$4 multimode interference (MMI) coupler, a phase shifter and a 2$\,\times\,$2 MMI coupler. We theoretically clarified that the proposed device shows superior performances to a conventional 4$\,\times\,$4 multimode interference coupler from the viewpoint of a wavelength sensitive loss and an operating bandwidth. We fabricated the proposed 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid using a deep-ridge waveguide with a GaInAsP/InP material system, and experimentally demonstrated quadrature phase response with a low interchannel imbalance, a high common-mode rejection ratio ($> 20$ dB) and a low phase deviation $(<5^{\circ})$ over 94-nm-wide spectral range.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. K. Kikuchi, "Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multilevel optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 563-570 (2006).
  2. M. Seimetz, C. M. Weinert, "Options, feasibility and availability of 2$\,\times\,$4 90$^{\circ}$ hybrids for coherent optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1317-1322 (2006).
  3. www.optoplex.com/ or http://kylia.com/.
  4. D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, E. Dietrich, "Integrated optics eight-port 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid on LiNbO $_{3}$," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 794-798 (1989).
  5. C. R. Doerr, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, M. Earnshaw, J. Weiner, D. M. Gill, Y. K. Chen, "Monolithic silicon coherent receiver," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2009 (2009).
  6. C. R. Doerr, D. M. Gill, A. H. Gnauck, L. L. Buhl, P. J. Winzer, M. A. Cappuzzo, A. Wong-Foy, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, "Monolithic demodulator for 40-Gb/s DQPSK using a star coupler," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 171-174 (2006).
  7. C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, "Monolithic DQPSK receiver in InP with low polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1765-1767 (2007).
  8. E. C. M. Pennings, R. J. Deri, R. Baht, T. R. Hayes, N. C. Andreadakis, "Ultracompact, all-passive 90$^{\circ}$ hybrids on InP using self-imaging," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 701-703 (1993).
  9. K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, C. M. Weinert, "Silicon-on-insulator 90$^{\circ}$ optical hybrid using 4$\,\times\,$4 waveguide couplers with C-band operation," Proc. ECOC 2008 (2008).
  10. L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, C. M. Weinert, "C-band optical 90$^{\circ}$ hybrids based on Silicon-on-insulator 4$\,\times\,$4 waveguide coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 143-145 (2009).
  11. H. G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, A. Umbach, "Monolithic 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid with balanced pin photodiodes for 100 Gbit/s PM-QPSK receiver applications," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2009 (2009).
  12. M. Baudreau, M. Poirier, G. Yoffe, B. Pezeshki, "An integrated InP coherent receiver for 40 and 100 Gb/sec telecommunications systems," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2009 (2009).
  13. S. Yamashita, Y. Okoshi, "Suppression of common-mode beat noise from optical amplifiers using a balanced receiver," Electron. Lett. 28, 1970-1972 (1992).
  14. S. Yamashita, Y. Okoshi, "Suppression of beat noise from optical amplifiers using coherent receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1029-1035 (1994).
  15. S.-H. Jeong, K. Morito, "Novel optical 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid with low wavelength sensitive power balance and phase deviation over 94-nm-wide spectral range," Proc. ECOC 2009 (2009).
  16. L. B. Soldano, C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
  17. M. R. Paiam, R. I. MacDonald, "Design of phased-array wavelength division multiplexers using multimode interference couplers," Appl. Opt. 36, 5097-5108 (1997).
  18. M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, "Overlapping image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting," Appl. Opt. 34, 6898-6910 (1995).
  19. M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, "Optimizing imbalance and loss in 4$\,\times\,$4 3-dB multimode interference couplers via access waveguide width," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2305-2313 (2003).
  20. M. Kohtoku, H. Sanjoh, S. Oku, Y. Yoshikuni, "Packaged polarization insensitive WDM monitor with low loss (7.3 dB) and wide tuning range (4.5 nm)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1614-1616 (1998).

2009 (1)

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, C. M. Weinert, "C-band optical 90$^{\circ}$ hybrids based on Silicon-on-insulator 4$\,\times\,$4 waveguide coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 143-145 (2009).

2007 (1)

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, "Monolithic DQPSK receiver in InP with low polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1765-1767 (2007).

2006 (3)

K. Kikuchi, "Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multilevel optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 563-570 (2006).

M. Seimetz, C. M. Weinert, "Options, feasibility and availability of 2$\,\times\,$4 90$^{\circ}$ hybrids for coherent optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1317-1322 (2006).

C. R. Doerr, D. M. Gill, A. H. Gnauck, L. L. Buhl, P. J. Winzer, M. A. Cappuzzo, A. Wong-Foy, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, "Monolithic demodulator for 40-Gb/s DQPSK using a star coupler," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 171-174 (2006).

2003 (1)

M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, "Optimizing imbalance and loss in 4$\,\times\,$4 3-dB multimode interference couplers via access waveguide width," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2305-2313 (2003).

1998 (1)

M. Kohtoku, H. Sanjoh, S. Oku, Y. Yoshikuni, "Packaged polarization insensitive WDM monitor with low loss (7.3 dB) and wide tuning range (4.5 nm)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1614-1616 (1998).

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, "Overlapping image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting," Appl. Opt. 34, 6898-6910 (1995).

L. B. Soldano, C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

1994 (1)

S. Yamashita, Y. Okoshi, "Suppression of beat noise from optical amplifiers using coherent receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1029-1035 (1994).

1993 (1)

E. C. M. Pennings, R. J. Deri, R. Baht, T. R. Hayes, N. C. Andreadakis, "Ultracompact, all-passive 90$^{\circ}$ hybrids on InP using self-imaging," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 701-703 (1993).

1992 (1)

S. Yamashita, Y. Okoshi, "Suppression of common-mode beat noise from optical amplifiers using a balanced receiver," Electron. Lett. 28, 1970-1972 (1992).

1989 (1)

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, E. Dietrich, "Integrated optics eight-port 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid on LiNbO $_{3}$," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 794-798 (1989).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Yamashita, Y. Okoshi, "Suppression of common-mode beat noise from optical amplifiers using a balanced receiver," Electron. Lett. 28, 1970-1972 (1992).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Kikuchi, "Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multilevel optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 563-570 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, "Monolithic DQPSK receiver in InP with low polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1765-1767 (2007).

E. C. M. Pennings, R. J. Deri, R. Baht, T. R. Hayes, N. C. Andreadakis, "Ultracompact, all-passive 90$^{\circ}$ hybrids on InP using self-imaging," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 701-703 (1993).

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, C. M. Weinert, "C-band optical 90$^{\circ}$ hybrids based on Silicon-on-insulator 4$\,\times\,$4 waveguide coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 143-145 (2009).

M. Kohtoku, H. Sanjoh, S. Oku, Y. Yoshikuni, "Packaged polarization insensitive WDM monitor with low loss (7.3 dB) and wide tuning range (4.5 nm)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1614-1616 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, "Optimizing imbalance and loss in 4$\,\times\,$4 3-dB multimode interference couplers via access waveguide width," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2305-2313 (2003).

S. Yamashita, Y. Okoshi, "Suppression of beat noise from optical amplifiers using coherent receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1029-1035 (1994).

C. R. Doerr, D. M. Gill, A. H. Gnauck, L. L. Buhl, P. J. Winzer, M. A. Cappuzzo, A. Wong-Foy, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, "Monolithic demodulator for 40-Gb/s DQPSK using a star coupler," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 171-174 (2006).

L. B. Soldano, C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

M. Seimetz, C. M. Weinert, "Options, feasibility and availability of 2$\,\times\,$4 90$^{\circ}$ hybrids for coherent optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1317-1322 (2006).

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, E. Dietrich, "Integrated optics eight-port 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid on LiNbO $_{3}$," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 794-798 (1989).

Other (6)

C. R. Doerr, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, M. Earnshaw, J. Weiner, D. M. Gill, Y. K. Chen, "Monolithic silicon coherent receiver," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2009 (2009).

www.optoplex.com/ or http://kylia.com/.

H. G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, A. Umbach, "Monolithic 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid with balanced pin photodiodes for 100 Gbit/s PM-QPSK receiver applications," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2009 (2009).

M. Baudreau, M. Poirier, G. Yoffe, B. Pezeshki, "An integrated InP coherent receiver for 40 and 100 Gb/sec telecommunications systems," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2009 (2009).

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, C. M. Weinert, "Silicon-on-insulator 90$^{\circ}$ optical hybrid using 4$\,\times\,$4 waveguide couplers with C-band operation," Proc. ECOC 2008 (2008).

S.-H. Jeong, K. Morito, "Novel optical 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid with low wavelength sensitive power balance and phase deviation over 94-nm-wide spectral range," Proc. ECOC 2009 (2009).

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