Abstract

Chip-scale photonic interconnection networks have emerged as a promising technology solution that can address many of the scalability challenges facing the communication networks in next-generation high-performance multicore processors. Photonic interconnects can offer significantly higher bandwidth density, lower latencies, and better energy efficiency. Even though photonics exhibits these inherent advantages over electronics, the network designs that can successfully leverage these benefits cannot be straightforwardly extracted from typical electronic network methodologies and must consider the many unique physical-layer constraints of optical technologies. We conduct an architectural exploration of four chip-scale photonic interconnection networks in a novel simulation environment, measuring insertion loss, crosstalk, and power. We also explain and demonstrate the impact of these physical-layer metrics on the scalability, performance, and realizability of each design.

© 2010 IEEE

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  20. M. Uenuma, T. Moooka, "Temperature-independent silicon waveguide optical filter," OSA Opt. Lett. 34, 599-601 (2009).
  21. T. Gensty, W. Elsäßer, C. Mann, "Intensity noise properties of quantum cascade lasers," OSA Opt. Exp. 13, 2032-2039 (2005).
  22. Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall, 1997) pp. 146-282.
  23. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," OSA Opt. Exp. 15, 430-436 (2007).
  24. K. Preston, S. Manipatruni, A. Gondarenko, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, "Deposited silicon high-speed integrated electro-optic modulator," OSA Opt. Exp. 17, 5118-5124 (2009).
  25. B. P. Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems (Oxford University Press, 1998) pp. 577-625.
  26. G. Hendry, A. Biberman, J. Chan, S. Kamil, B. G. Lee, M. Mohiyuddin, K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, L. Oliker, J. Shalf, "Analysis of photonic networks for a chip multi-processor using scientific applications," Proc. Int. Symp. Networks-on-Chip (2009) pp. 104-113.

2009

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, K. Asanovic, "Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics," IEEE Micro 29, 8-21 (2009).

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "High-speed 2$\,\times\,$2 switch for multi-wavelength silicon photonic networks on-chip," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2900-2907 (2009).

M. Uenuma, T. Moooka, "Temperature-independent silicon waveguide optical filter," OSA Opt. Lett. 34, 599-601 (2009).

K. Preston, S. Manipatruni, A. Gondarenko, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, "Deposited silicon high-speed integrated electro-optic modulator," OSA Opt. Exp. 17, 5118-5124 (2009).

2008

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767-769 (2008).

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, M. Lipson, "Optical 4$\,\times\,$4 hitless silicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC)," OSA Opt. Exp. 16, 15915-15922 (2008).

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246-1260 (2008).

2007

N. Kirman, M. Kirman, R. K. Dokania, J. F. Martinez, A. B. Apsel, M. A. Watkins, D. H. Albonesi, "On-chip optical technology in future bus-based multicore designs," IEEE Micro 27, 56-66 (2007).

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, "Low-loss, low-cross-talk crossings for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides," OSA Opt. Lett. 32, 2801-2803 (2007).

J. Schrauwen, F. V. Laere, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, "Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slanted grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 816-818 (2007).

S. J. Koester, C. L. Schow, L. Schares, G. Dehlinger, J. D. Schaub, F. E. Doany, R. A. John, "Ge-on-SOI-detector/Si-CMOS-amplifier receivers for high-performance optical-communication applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 46-57 (2007).

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," OSA Opt. Exp. 15, 430-436 (2007).

2006

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photon. 1, 65-71 (2006).

2005

T. Gensty, W. Elsäßer, C. Mann, "Intensity noise properties of quantum cascade lasers," OSA Opt. Exp. 13, 2032-2039 (2005).

2003

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," OSA Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003).

IEEE Micro

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, K. Asanovic, "Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics," IEEE Micro 29, 8-21 (2009).

N. Kirman, M. Kirman, R. K. Dokania, J. F. Martinez, A. B. Apsel, M. A. Watkins, D. H. Albonesi, "On-chip optical technology in future bus-based multicore designs," IEEE Micro 27, 56-66 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Schrauwen, F. V. Laere, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, "Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slanted grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 816-818 (2007).

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767-769 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Comput.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246-1260 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "High-speed 2$\,\times\,$2 switch for multi-wavelength silicon photonic networks on-chip," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2900-2907 (2009).

S. J. Koester, C. L. Schow, L. Schares, G. Dehlinger, J. D. Schaub, F. E. Doany, R. A. John, "Ge-on-SOI-detector/Si-CMOS-amplifier receivers for high-performance optical-communication applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 46-57 (2007).

Nature Photon.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photon. 1, 65-71 (2006).

OSA Opt. Exp.

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, M. Lipson, "Optical 4$\,\times\,$4 hitless silicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC)," OSA Opt. Exp. 16, 15915-15922 (2008).

T. Gensty, W. Elsäßer, C. Mann, "Intensity noise properties of quantum cascade lasers," OSA Opt. Exp. 13, 2032-2039 (2005).

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," OSA Opt. Exp. 15, 430-436 (2007).

K. Preston, S. Manipatruni, A. Gondarenko, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, "Deposited silicon high-speed integrated electro-optic modulator," OSA Opt. Exp. 17, 5118-5124 (2009).

OSA Opt. Lett.

M. Uenuma, T. Moooka, "Temperature-independent silicon waveguide optical filter," OSA Opt. Lett. 34, 599-601 (2009).

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, "Low-loss, low-cross-talk crossings for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides," OSA Opt. Lett. 32, 2801-2803 (2007).

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," OSA Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003).

Other

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, "Ultralow power silicon microdisk modulators and switches," IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics SorrentoItaly (2008) Paper WA2.

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, J. H. Ahn, "Corona: System implications of emerging nanophotonic technology," Proc. 35th Int. Symp. Comput. Archit. (2008) pp. 153-164.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, "Multi-wavelength message routing in a non-blocking four-port bidirectional switch fabric for silicon photonic networks-on-chip," Optical Fiber Communications Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OMJ4.

A. Varga, "OMNeT++ discrete event simulation system," http://www.omnetpp.org.

A. Kahng, B. Li, L. Peh, K. Samadi, "ORION 2.0: A fast and accurate NoC power and area model for early-stage design space exploration," Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition NiceFrance (2009).

H. Wang, M. Petracca, A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, L. P. Carloni, K. Bergman, "Nanophotonic optical interconnection network architecture for on-chip and off-chip communications," Optical Fiber Communications Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper JThA92.

J. Chan, A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, "Insertion loss analysis in a photonic interconnection network for on-chip and off-chip communications," Annual Meeting Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Newport BeachCA (2008) Paper TuT3.

B. P. Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems (Oxford University Press, 1998) pp. 577-625.

G. Hendry, A. Biberman, J. Chan, S. Kamil, B. G. Lee, M. Mohiyuddin, K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, L. Oliker, J. Shalf, "Analysis of photonic networks for a chip multi-processor using scientific applications," Proc. Int. Symp. Networks-on-Chip (2009) pp. 104-113.

Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall, 1997) pp. 146-282.

N. Magen, A. Kolodny, U. Weiser, N. Shamir, "Interconnect-power dissipation in a microprocessor," Proc. Int. Workshop Syst. Level Interconnect Prediction (2004) pp. 7-13.

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