Abstract

In this work, we analyze the spectral properties of locally pressed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written into polarization maintaining fibers. We study the evolution of the spectral response of a FBG written into a PANDA fiber when the central region of the grating is perturbed by a diametrical load. Due to the complex structure of the fiber, a finite element model was carried out to determine the strain distributions generated at the center region of the fiber core, and hence taking the induced change in refractive index as the change in effective refractive index due to the applied load. Once the shifting in Bragg wavelength and the optical principal axes of the loaded region are known, a modified transfer matrix method is applied to calculate the spectral response of the FBG. We have found experimentally and by numerical simulations that the reflected spectra for the grating exhibit a narrow and tunable polarization-dependent spectral hole. The tuning of this spectral hole is dependent of the magnitude and the angle of the applied force over the optical fiber.

© 2010 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. C. R. Giles, "Lightwave applications of fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1391-1404 (1997).
  2. J.-L. Archambbault, S. A. Grubb, "Fiber gratings in lasers and amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1378-1390 (1997).
  3. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putman, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
  4. F. Bosia, P. Giaccari, J. Botsis, M. Facchini, H. G. Limberger, R. Salathé, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg grating sensors subjected to a two-dimensional strain field," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 925-934 (2003).
  5. R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, J. S. Sirkis, "Effects of diametric load on fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in low birefringent fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 1223-1224 (1996).
  6. M. Leblanc, S. Y. Huang, M. Ohn, R. M. Measures, A. Guemes, A. Othonos, "Distributed strain measurement based on a fiber Bragg grating and its reflection spectrum analysis," Opt. Lett. 21, 1405-1407 (1996).
  7. S. Huang, M. M. Ohn, R. M. Measures, "Phase-based Bragg intragrating distributed strain sensor," Appl. Opt. 35, 1135-1142 (1996).
  8. D. Gatti, G. Galzerano, D. Janner, S. Longhi, P. Laporta, "Fiber strain sensor based on a $\pi$-phase-shifted Bragg grating and the Ponud-Drever-Hall Technique," Opt. Exp. 16, 1945-1950 (2008).
  9. M. LeBlanc, S. T. Vohra, T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, "Transverse load sensing by use of pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 24, 1091-1093 (1999).
  10. M. Pisco, A. Iadicico, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Structured chirped fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1613-1625 (2008).
  11. R. Gafsi, M. A. El-Sheriff, "Analysis of induced-birefringence effects on fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 299-323 (2000).
  12. S. L. A. Carrara, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Elasto-optic alignment of birefringent axes in polarization-holding optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 11, 470-472 (1986).
  13. C. J. S. De Matos, P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente, W. Margulis, R. Stubbe, "Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) characterization and shaping by local pressure," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1206-1211 (2001).
  14. S. P. Timoshenko, J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, 1970).
  15. F. Bosia, P. Giaccari, J. Botsis, M. Facchini1, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg grating sensors subjected to a two-dimensional strain field," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 925-934 (2003).
  16. P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente, "Spectral response of locally pressed fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 208, 285-291 (2002).
  17. T. Erdogan, "Fiber Bragg grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).
  18. R. Correia, E. Chehura, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "A pressure sensor based upon the transverse loading of a sub-section of an optical fibre Bragg grating," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3103-3110 (2007).
  19. K. L. Johnson, Contact Mechanics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999).
  20. R. Correia, E. Chehura, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Locally pressed fibre Bragg grating pressure sensor," Proc. Optical Fiber Sensors (2006).
  21. L. A. Everall, K. Sugden, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, X. Liu, J. S. Aitchison, S. Thoms, R. M. De La Rue, "Fabrication of multipassband moiré resonators in fibers by the dual-phase-mask exposure method," Opt. Lett. 21, 1473-1475 (1997).
  22. L. Michaille, M. W. McCall, Y. C. Lai, J. A. R. Williams, "Analysis of single and multiple, non-permanent, tunable, birefringent spectral holes in a fibre-Bragg grating stop-band produced via uniaxial pressure," Opt. Commun. 222, 1-8 (2003).
  23. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part II: Towards advanced photonic devices," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 291-301 (2007).

2008 (2)

D. Gatti, G. Galzerano, D. Janner, S. Longhi, P. Laporta, "Fiber strain sensor based on a $\pi$-phase-shifted Bragg grating and the Ponud-Drever-Hall Technique," Opt. Exp. 16, 1945-1950 (2008).

M. Pisco, A. Iadicico, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Structured chirped fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1613-1625 (2008).

2007 (2)

R. Correia, E. Chehura, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "A pressure sensor based upon the transverse loading of a sub-section of an optical fibre Bragg grating," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3103-3110 (2007).

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part II: Towards advanced photonic devices," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 291-301 (2007).

2003 (3)

L. Michaille, M. W. McCall, Y. C. Lai, J. A. R. Williams, "Analysis of single and multiple, non-permanent, tunable, birefringent spectral holes in a fibre-Bragg grating stop-band produced via uniaxial pressure," Opt. Commun. 222, 1-8 (2003).

F. Bosia, P. Giaccari, J. Botsis, M. Facchini1, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg grating sensors subjected to a two-dimensional strain field," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 925-934 (2003).

F. Bosia, P. Giaccari, J. Botsis, M. Facchini, H. G. Limberger, R. Salathé, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg grating sensors subjected to a two-dimensional strain field," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 925-934 (2003).

2002 (1)

P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente, "Spectral response of locally pressed fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 208, 285-291 (2002).

2001 (1)

C. J. S. De Matos, P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente, W. Margulis, R. Stubbe, "Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) characterization and shaping by local pressure," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1206-1211 (2001).

2000 (1)

R. Gafsi, M. A. El-Sheriff, "Analysis of induced-birefringence effects on fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 299-323 (2000).

1999 (1)

1997 (5)

C. R. Giles, "Lightwave applications of fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1391-1404 (1997).

J.-L. Archambbault, S. A. Grubb, "Fiber gratings in lasers and amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1378-1390 (1997).

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putman, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber Bragg grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

L. A. Everall, K. Sugden, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, X. Liu, J. S. Aitchison, S. Thoms, R. M. De La Rue, "Fabrication of multipassband moiré resonators in fibers by the dual-phase-mask exposure method," Opt. Lett. 21, 1473-1475 (1997).

1996 (3)

1986 (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, J. S. Sirkis, "Effects of diametric load on fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in low birefringent fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 1223-1224 (1996).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

C. R. Giles, "Lightwave applications of fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1391-1404 (1997).

J.-L. Archambbault, S. A. Grubb, "Fiber gratings in lasers and amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1378-1390 (1997).

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putman, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

M. Pisco, A. Iadicico, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Structured chirped fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1613-1625 (2008).

C. J. S. De Matos, P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente, W. Margulis, R. Stubbe, "Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) characterization and shaping by local pressure," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1206-1211 (2001).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber Bragg grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. Correia, E. Chehura, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "A pressure sensor based upon the transverse loading of a sub-section of an optical fibre Bragg grating," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3103-3110 (2007).

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente, "Spectral response of locally pressed fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 208, 285-291 (2002).

L. Michaille, M. W. McCall, Y. C. Lai, J. A. R. Williams, "Analysis of single and multiple, non-permanent, tunable, birefringent spectral holes in a fibre-Bragg grating stop-band produced via uniaxial pressure," Opt. Commun. 222, 1-8 (2003).

Opt. Exp. (1)

D. Gatti, G. Galzerano, D. Janner, S. Longhi, P. Laporta, "Fiber strain sensor based on a $\pi$-phase-shifted Bragg grating and the Ponud-Drever-Hall Technique," Opt. Exp. 16, 1945-1950 (2008).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (2)

R. Gafsi, M. A. El-Sheriff, "Analysis of induced-birefringence effects on fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 299-323 (2000).

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part II: Towards advanced photonic devices," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 291-301 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Smart Mater. Struct. (2)

F. Bosia, P. Giaccari, J. Botsis, M. Facchini, H. G. Limberger, R. Salathé, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg grating sensors subjected to a two-dimensional strain field," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 925-934 (2003).

F. Bosia, P. Giaccari, J. Botsis, M. Facchini1, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg grating sensors subjected to a two-dimensional strain field," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 925-934 (2003).

Other (3)

S. P. Timoshenko, J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, 1970).

K. L. Johnson, Contact Mechanics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999).

R. Correia, E. Chehura, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Locally pressed fibre Bragg grating pressure sensor," Proc. Optical Fiber Sensors (2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.