Abstract

Although unique properties such as creation of nondiffracting beams and as a result the large focal depth have been exhibited from axicon lenses, and numerous important applications in optical signal processing and imaging have been demonstrated, axicons of dimensions smaller than a hundred of micrometers have not yet been reported. It is technically quite challenging for the currently available technologies including lithography and mechanical shaping to define complicated three-dimensional surface profiles depicted by lens functions in the small scale. Here, we report the solution of the issue by use of femtosecond laser nanofabrication via two-photon polymerization of resins. Not only well-defined monolithic micro axicons are attained, they demonstrate excellent optical characteristics: the cross-sectional Besselian beam intensity distribution was found almost unchanged for at least 200$\mu$m within the focal range; imaging remains unblurred and in high contrast in a much wider range than that for a common lens. The direct laser nanowriting strategy would allow the lens integrated with other optical components produced the same way, or incorporated to an existing micro-optical system.

© 2010 IEEE

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2007 (1)

G. Mikuła, Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kolodziejczyk, K. Petelczyc, M. Sypek, "Imaging with extended focal depth by means of lenses with radial and angular modulation," Opt. Exp. 15, 9184-9193 (2007).

2006 (1)

J. Ježek, T. Cižmár, V. Neděla, P. Zemánek, "Formation of long and thin polymer fiber using nondiffracting beam," Opt. Exp. 14, 8506-8515 (2006).

2005 (2)

H. Sheng, K. Y. Kim, V. Kumarappan, B. D. Layer, H. M. Milchberg, "Plasma waveguides efficiently generated by Bessel beams in elongated cluster gas jets," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036411-1-036411-8 (2005).

K. Takada, H. B. Sun, S. Kawata, "Improved spatial resolution and surface roughness in photopolymerization-based laser nanowriting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122-1-071122-3 (2005).

2004 (1)

Y. F. Xiao, H. H. Chu, C. H. Lee, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chen, "Efficient generation of extended plasma waveguides with the axicon ignitor-heater scheme," Phys. Plasmas 11, L21-L24 (2004).

2002 (1)

2001 (4)

W. Chi, N. George, "Electronic imaging using a logarithmic asphere," Opt. Lett. 26, 875-877 (2001).

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, "Optical dipole traps and atomic waveguides based on Bessel light beams," Phys. Rev. A 63, 063602-1-063602-8 (2001).

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanka, K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature (London) 412, 697-698 (2001).

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, S. Kawata, "Elastic force analysis of functional polymer submicron oscillators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173-3175 (2001).

1999 (1)

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786-788 (1999).

1998 (1)

B. Eppich, C. Gao, H. Weber, "Determination of the ten second order intensity moments," Opt. Laser Techn. 30, 337-340 (1998).

1994 (1)

A. T. Friberg, E. Tervonen, J. Turunen, "Interpretation and experimental demonstration of twisted Gaussian Schell-model beams," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 11, 1818-1826 (1994).

1993 (1)

R. Simon, N. Mukunda, "Twisted Gaussian Schell-model beams," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 10, 95-109 (1993).

1992 (2)

Y. Lin, W. Seka, J. H. Eberly, H. Huang, D. L. Brown, "Experimental investigation of Bessel beam characteristics," Appl. Lett. 31, 2708-2713 (1992).

J. Sochacki, A. Kolodziejczyk, Z. Jaroszewicz, S. Bara, "Nonparaxial design of generalized axicons," Appl. Opt. 31, 5326-5330 (1992).

1989 (1)

M. Florjanczyk, R. Tremblay, "Guiding of atoms in a travelling-wave laser trap formed by the axicon," Opt. Commun. 73, 448-450 (1989).

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, Jr.J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).

1978 (1)

1974 (1)

1960 (1)

J. H. Mcleod, "Axicons and their uses," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 166-169 (1960).

1954 (1)

J. H. Mcleod, "The axicon: A new type of optical element," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 44, 592-597 (1954).

Appl. Lett. (1)

Y. Lin, W. Seka, J. H. Eberly, H. Huang, D. L. Brown, "Experimental investigation of Bessel beam characteristics," Appl. Lett. 31, 2708-2713 (1992).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786-788 (1999).

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, S. Kawata, "Elastic force analysis of functional polymer submicron oscillators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173-3175 (2001).

K. Takada, H. B. Sun, S. Kawata, "Improved spatial resolution and surface roughness in photopolymerization-based laser nanowriting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122-1-071122-3 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (2)

J. H. Mcleod, "The axicon: A new type of optical element," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 44, 592-597 (1954).

J. H. Mcleod, "Axicons and their uses," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 166-169 (1960).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (2)

R. Simon, N. Mukunda, "Twisted Gaussian Schell-model beams," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 10, 95-109 (1993).

A. T. Friberg, E. Tervonen, J. Turunen, "Interpretation and experimental demonstration of twisted Gaussian Schell-model beams," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 11, 1818-1826 (1994).

Nature (London) (1)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanka, K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature (London) 412, 697-698 (2001).

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Florjanczyk, R. Tremblay, "Guiding of atoms in a travelling-wave laser trap formed by the axicon," Opt. Commun. 73, 448-450 (1989).

Opt. Exp. (2)

J. Ježek, T. Cižmár, V. Neděla, P. Zemánek, "Formation of long and thin polymer fiber using nondiffracting beam," Opt. Exp. 14, 8506-8515 (2006).

G. Mikuła, Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kolodziejczyk, K. Petelczyc, M. Sypek, "Imaging with extended focal depth by means of lenses with radial and angular modulation," Opt. Exp. 15, 9184-9193 (2007).

Opt. Laser Techn. (1)

B. Eppich, C. Gao, H. Weber, "Determination of the ten second order intensity moments," Opt. Laser Techn. 30, 337-340 (1998).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

Y. F. Xiao, H. H. Chu, C. H. Lee, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chen, "Efficient generation of extended plasma waveguides with the axicon ignitor-heater scheme," Phys. Plasmas 11, L21-L24 (2004).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, "Optical dipole traps and atomic waveguides based on Bessel light beams," Phys. Rev. A 63, 063602-1-063602-8 (2001).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

H. Sheng, K. Y. Kim, V. Kumarappan, B. D. Layer, H. M. Milchberg, "Plasma waveguides efficiently generated by Bessel beams in elongated cluster gas jets," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036411-1-036411-8 (2005).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, Jr.J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).

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