Abstract

We demonstrate a multi-purpose all-fiber design for gas-filled cavities based on hollow core photonic crystal fibers and on a specially designed fiber connector system. The connector system allows to evacuate and to fill the fiber core with a gaseous medium and keeping it pressure-tight. It also allows connecting the hollow core fiber to standard fibers. We demonstrate the flexibility and functionality by realizing three different all-fiber spectroscopic devices. Firstly, a single pass gas cell for linear absorption spectroscopy, secondly, a double pass gas cell and, thirdly, an all-fiber Fabry–Perot cavity for nonlinear saturation spectroscopy.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. R. F. Cregan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
  2. J. Henningsen, J. Hald, J. C. Petersen, "Saturated absorption in acetylene and hydrogen cyanide in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 10475-10482 (2005).
  3. A. M. Cubillas, J. Hald, J. C. Peterson, "High resolution spectroscopy of ammonia in hollow-core fiber," Opt. Exp. 16, 3976-3985 (2008).
  4. F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Sci. 298, 399-402 (2002).
  5. F. Benabid, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fiber gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
  6. R. Thapa, K. Knabe, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, "Arc fusion splicing of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for gas filled fiber cells," Opt. Exp. 14, 9576-9583 (2006).
  7. P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, "Low optical insertion-loss and vacuum-pressure all-fiber acetylene cell based on hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2538-2540 (2006).
  8. F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. S. Light, "Reduction of Fresnel back-reflection at splice interface between hollow core PCF and single-mode fiber," Technol. Lett. 19, 1020-1022 (2007).
  9. F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on 12C$_2$H$_2$-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, (2006).
  10. Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, X. C. Yang, D. W. Duan, "In-line fiber-optic etalon formed by hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 32, 2662-2664 (2007).
  11. Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, X. Dong, "A hollow core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry–Perot interferometric strain sensor system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1329-1331 (2008).
  12. J. P. Carvalho, H. Lehmann, H. Bartelt, F. Magalhaes, R. Amezcua-Correa, J. L. Santos, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. C. Knight, "Remote system for detection of low-lwvels of methane based on photonic crystal fibres and wavelength modulation spectroscopy," J. Sens. 2009, (2009) Art. ID: 398403.
  13. P. Robers, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Farr, M. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. Birks, J. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Exp. 13, 236-244 (2005).
  14. G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, "Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity," Opt. Comm. 255, 175-183 (2005).
  15. W. C. Swann, S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1510–1540 nm acetylene wavelength calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 1263-1270 (2000).
  16. W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer, 2007).
  17. K. Shimoda, High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy (Springer, 1976).
  18. J. Henningsen, J. Hald, "Dynamics of gas flow in hollow core photonic bandgap fiber," Appl. Opt. 47, 2790-2797 (2008).

2009

J. P. Carvalho, H. Lehmann, H. Bartelt, F. Magalhaes, R. Amezcua-Correa, J. L. Santos, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. C. Knight, "Remote system for detection of low-lwvels of methane based on photonic crystal fibres and wavelength modulation spectroscopy," J. Sens. 2009, (2009) Art. ID: 398403.

2008

A. M. Cubillas, J. Hald, J. C. Peterson, "High resolution spectroscopy of ammonia in hollow-core fiber," Opt. Exp. 16, 3976-3985 (2008).

Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, X. Dong, "A hollow core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry–Perot interferometric strain sensor system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1329-1331 (2008).

J. Henningsen, J. Hald, "Dynamics of gas flow in hollow core photonic bandgap fiber," Appl. Opt. 47, 2790-2797 (2008).

2007

Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, X. C. Yang, D. W. Duan, "In-line fiber-optic etalon formed by hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 32, 2662-2664 (2007).

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. S. Light, "Reduction of Fresnel back-reflection at splice interface between hollow core PCF and single-mode fiber," Technol. Lett. 19, 1020-1022 (2007).

2006

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on 12C$_2$H$_2$-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, (2006).

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, "Low optical insertion-loss and vacuum-pressure all-fiber acetylene cell based on hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2538-2540 (2006).

R. Thapa, K. Knabe, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, "Arc fusion splicing of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for gas filled fiber cells," Opt. Exp. 14, 9576-9583 (2006).

2005

F. Benabid, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fiber gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).

J. Henningsen, J. Hald, J. C. Petersen, "Saturated absorption in acetylene and hydrogen cyanide in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 10475-10482 (2005).

P. Robers, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Farr, M. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. Birks, J. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Exp. 13, 236-244 (2005).

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, "Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity," Opt. Comm. 255, 175-183 (2005).

2002

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Sci. 298, 399-402 (2002).

2000

W. C. Swann, S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1510–1540 nm acetylene wavelength calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 1263-1270 (2000).

1999

R. F. Cregan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, X. Dong, "A hollow core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry–Perot interferometric strain sensor system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1329-1331 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

W. C. Swann, S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1510–1540 nm acetylene wavelength calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 1263-1270 (2000).

J. Sens.

J. P. Carvalho, H. Lehmann, H. Bartelt, F. Magalhaes, R. Amezcua-Correa, J. L. Santos, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. C. Knight, "Remote system for detection of low-lwvels of methane based on photonic crystal fibres and wavelength modulation spectroscopy," J. Sens. 2009, (2009) Art. ID: 398403.

Nature

F. Benabid, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fiber gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).

Opt. Comm.

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, "Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity," Opt. Comm. 255, 175-183 (2005).

Opt. Commun.

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on 12C$_2$H$_2$-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, (2006).

Opt. Exp.

J. Henningsen, J. Hald, J. C. Petersen, "Saturated absorption in acetylene and hydrogen cyanide in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 10475-10482 (2005).

A. M. Cubillas, J. Hald, J. C. Peterson, "High resolution spectroscopy of ammonia in hollow-core fiber," Opt. Exp. 16, 3976-3985 (2008).

R. Thapa, K. Knabe, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, "Arc fusion splicing of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for gas filled fiber cells," Opt. Exp. 14, 9576-9583 (2006).

P. Robers, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Farr, M. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. Birks, J. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Exp. 13, 236-244 (2005).

Opt. Lett.

Sci.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Sci. 298, 399-402 (2002).

Science

R. F. Cregan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

Technol. Lett.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. S. Light, "Reduction of Fresnel back-reflection at splice interface between hollow core PCF and single-mode fiber," Technol. Lett. 19, 1020-1022 (2007).

Other

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer, 2007).

K. Shimoda, High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy (Springer, 1976).

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