Abstract

In this work we preset a new technique for measurement of harmonic distortion in microwave photodiodes. Our technique combines optical combs and high-resolution optical filtering to provide a pure optical two-tone excitation of the photodiode. Our technique removes the challenges presented by laser frequency drift and modulator bias control by utilizing a single laser and phase-modulation to synthesize the optical combs. We demonstrate our technique through measurement of the harmonic distortion generated in a commercial InGaAs photodiode and compare our results with those obtained via phase-locked laser measurements. We show that this technique provides essentially equivalent measurement fidelity to phase-locked laser techniques while offering decreased system complexity. We additionally provide a general discussion of the limits of nonlinearity measurements performed using optical heterodyne techniques.

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  26. E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, "Study of the excess noise associated with demodulation of ultrashort infrared pulses," IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Contr. 52, 1068-1074 (2005).
  27. M. Currie, I. Vurgaftman, "Microwave phase retardation in saturated ingaas photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1433-1435 (2006).
  28. S. A. Diddams, M. Kirchner, T. Fortier, D. Braje, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio of 10 GHz microwave signals generated with a mode-filtered femtosecond laser frequency comb," Opt. Exp. 17, 3331-3340 (2009).
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  30. A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instr. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
  31. K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, R. D. Esman, "Photodetector nonlinearity limitations on a high-dynamic range 3 ghz fiber optic link," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 192-199 (1998).
  32. K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Effects of high space-charge fields on the response of microwave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 639-641 (1994).
  33. K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Nonlinearities in PIN microwave photodetectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).
  34. R. N. Thurston, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, W. J. Tomlinson, "Analysis of picosecond pulse shape synthesis by spectral masking in a grating pulse compressor," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 682-696 (1986).
  35. A. Joshi, S. Datta, D. Becker, "GRIN lens coupled top-illuminated highly linear InGaAs photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1500-1502 (2008).
  36. E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications. (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1994).
  37. A. S. Hastings, D. A. Tulchinsky, K. J. Williams, H. Pan, A. Beling, J. C. Campbell, "Minimizing photodiode nonlinearities by compensating voltage-dependent responsivity effects," Proc. MWP'09 (2009) pp. 1-4.

2009 (2)

J. D. McKinney, K. Colladay, K. J. Williams, "Linearization of phase-modulated analog optical links employing interferometric demodulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1212-1220 (2009).

S. A. Diddams, M. Kirchner, T. Fortier, D. Braje, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio of 10 GHz microwave signals generated with a mode-filtered femtosecond laser frequency comb," Opt. Exp. 17, 3331-3340 (2009).

2008 (5)

A. Joshi, S. Datta, D. Becker, "GRIN lens coupled top-illuminated highly linear InGaAs photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1500-1502 (2008).

C.-B. Huang, S.-G. Park, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Nonlinearly broadened phase-modulated continuous-wave laser frequency combs characterized using DPSK decoding," Opt. Exp. 16, 2520-2527 (2008).

M. N. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang, P. K. L. Yu, "Three laser two-tone setup for measurement of photodiode intercept points," Opt. Exp. 16, 12108-12113 (2008).

B. M. Haas, V. J. Urick, J. D. McKinney, T. M. Murphy, "Dual-wavelength linearization of optically phase-modulated analog microwave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2748-2753 (2008).

A. Hastings, V. J. Urick, C. Sunderman, J. Diehl, J. D. McKinney, D. Tulchinsky, P. S. Devgan, K. J. Williams, "Suppression of even-order photodiode nonlinearities in multi-octave photonic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2557-2562 (2008).

2007 (2)

J. D. McKinney, M. Godinez, V. J. Urick, S. Thaniyavarn, W. Charczenko, K. J. Williams, "Sub-10 db noise figure in a multiple-ghz analog optical link," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 465-467 (2007).

B. M. Haas, T. E. Murphy, "A simple, linearized, phase-modulated analog optical transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 729-731 (2007).

2006 (4)

A. J. Seeds, K. J. Williams, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4628-4641 (2006).

V. J. Urick, M. S. Rogge, F. Bucholtz, K. J. Williams, "The performance of analog photonic links employing highly compressed erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 3141-3145 (2006).

R. A. Minasian, "Photonic signal processing of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 832-846 (2006).

M. Currie, I. Vurgaftman, "Microwave phase retardation in saturated ingaas photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1433-1435 (2006).

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, "Analysis of noise mechanisms limiting the frequency stability of microwave signgenerated with a femtosecond laser," IEEE. J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059-1065 (2003).

2001 (1)

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray, R. C. Williamson, "Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).

2000 (4)

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of ${\rm IP}_3$ in P-I-N photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for rf fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, A. Vang, D. C. Scott, P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, S. Yamamoto, "Optical pulse generation by electrooptic-modulation method and its application to integrated ultrashort pulse generators," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 1325-1331 (2000).

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instr. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).

1999 (1)

E. I. Ackerman, "Broad-band linearization of a mach-zehnder electrooptic modulator," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2271-2279 (1999).

1998 (1)

K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, R. D. Esman, "Photodetector nonlinearity limitations on a high-dynamic range 3 ghz fiber optic link," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 192-199 (1998).

1996 (1)

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Nonlinearities in PIN microwave photodetectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).

1994 (2)

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Effects of high space-charge fields on the response of microwave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 639-641 (1994).

G. E. Betts, "Linearized modulator for suboctave-bandpass optical analog links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 42, 2642-2649 (1994).

1993 (1)

J. L. Brooks, G. S. Maurer, R. A. Becker, "Implementation and evaluation of a dual parallel linearization system for am-scm video transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 34-41 (1993).

1989 (1)

K. J. Williams, L. Goldberg, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, J. F. Weller, "6โ€“34 GHz offset phase-locking of Nd:YAG 1319 nm nonplanar ring lasers," Electron. Lett. 25, 1242-1243 (1989).

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

R. N. Thurston, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, W. J. Tomlinson, "Analysis of picosecond pulse shape synthesis by spectral masking in a grating pulse compressor," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 682-696 (1986).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. J. Williams, L. Goldberg, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, J. F. Weller, "6โ€“34 GHz offset phase-locking of Nd:YAG 1319 nm nonplanar ring lasers," Electron. Lett. 25, 1242-1243 (1989).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. N. Thurston, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, W. J. Tomlinson, "Analysis of picosecond pulse shape synthesis by spectral masking in a grating pulse compressor," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 682-696 (1986).

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, S. Yamamoto, "Optical pulse generation by electrooptic-modulation method and its application to integrated ultrashort pulse generators," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 1325-1331 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

M. Currie, I. Vurgaftman, "Microwave phase retardation in saturated ingaas photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1433-1435 (2006).

A. Joshi, S. Datta, D. Becker, "GRIN lens coupled top-illuminated highly linear InGaAs photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1500-1502 (2008).

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Effects of high space-charge fields on the response of microwave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 639-641 (1994).

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of ${\rm IP}_3$ in P-I-N photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for rf fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, A. Vang, D. C. Scott, P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).

B. M. Haas, T. E. Murphy, "A simple, linearized, phase-modulated analog optical transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 729-731 (2007).

J. D. McKinney, M. Godinez, V. J. Urick, S. Thaniyavarn, W. Charczenko, K. J. Williams, "Sub-10 db noise figure in a multiple-ghz analog optical link," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 465-467 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (5)

V. J. Urick, M. S. Rogge, F. Bucholtz, K. J. Williams, "The performance of analog photonic links employing highly compressed erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 3141-3145 (2006).

R. A. Minasian, "Photonic signal processing of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 832-846 (2006).

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray, R. C. Williamson, "Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).

G. E. Betts, "Linearized modulator for suboctave-bandpass optical analog links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 42, 2642-2649 (1994).

E. I. Ackerman, "Broad-band linearization of a mach-zehnder electrooptic modulator," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2271-2279 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Contr. (1)

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, "Study of the excess noise associated with demodulation of ultrashort infrared pulses," IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Contr. 52, 1068-1074 (2005).

IEEE. J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, "Analysis of noise mechanisms limiting the frequency stability of microwave signgenerated with a femtosecond laser," IEEE. J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059-1065 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (7)

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Nonlinearities in PIN microwave photodetectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).

B. M. Haas, V. J. Urick, J. D. McKinney, T. M. Murphy, "Dual-wavelength linearization of optically phase-modulated analog microwave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2748-2753 (2008).

J. D. McKinney, K. Colladay, K. J. Williams, "Linearization of phase-modulated analog optical links employing interferometric demodulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1212-1220 (2009).

A. J. Seeds, K. J. Williams, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4628-4641 (2006).

A. Hastings, V. J. Urick, C. Sunderman, J. Diehl, J. D. McKinney, D. Tulchinsky, P. S. Devgan, K. J. Williams, "Suppression of even-order photodiode nonlinearities in multi-octave photonic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2557-2562 (2008).

J. L. Brooks, G. S. Maurer, R. A. Becker, "Implementation and evaluation of a dual parallel linearization system for am-scm video transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 34-41 (1993).

K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, R. D. Esman, "Photodetector nonlinearity limitations on a high-dynamic range 3 ghz fiber optic link," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 192-199 (1998).

Opt. Exp. (3)

M. N. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang, P. K. L. Yu, "Three laser two-tone setup for measurement of photodiode intercept points," Opt. Exp. 16, 12108-12113 (2008).

S. A. Diddams, M. Kirchner, T. Fortier, D. Braje, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio of 10 GHz microwave signals generated with a mode-filtered femtosecond laser frequency comb," Opt. Exp. 17, 3331-3340 (2009).

C.-B. Huang, S.-G. Park, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Nonlinearly broadened phase-modulated continuous-wave laser frequency combs characterized using DPSK decoding," Opt. Exp. 16, 2520-2527 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instr. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).

Other (6)

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications. (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1994).

A. S. Hastings, D. A. Tulchinsky, K. J. Williams, H. Pan, A. Beling, J. C. Campbell, "Minimizing photodiode nonlinearities by compensating voltage-dependent responsivity effects," Proc. MWP'09 (2009) pp. 1-4.

D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering (Wiley, 2005).

J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, K. J. Williams, "Measurement of photodiode nonlinearities using an optical comb source," Proc. CLEO (2009).

H. V. Roussell, M. D. Regan, J. L. Prince, C. H. Cox, J. X. Chen, W. K. Burns, G. E. Betts, E. I. Ackerman, J. C. Campbell, "Gain, noise figure and bandwidth-limited dynamic range of a low-biased external modulation link," Proc. IEEE Int. Topical Meeting Microw. Photon. (2007) pp. 84-87.

C. H. Cox, IIIAnalog Optical Links: Theory and Practice. (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004).

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