Abstract

In this paper, we propose, analyze, and experimentally verify polarization-multiplexed optical wireless transmission with coherent detection as a means of improving performance and increasing the per-wavelength data rate in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. It is first shown that in terrestrial last-mile applications, the polarization state changes of the optical wireless signal are governed by optical source properties both in the absence and in the presence of mild to moderately severe turbulence. Under these conditions, it is shown that the polarization evolution is reduced to a polarization state rotation wherein the cross-polarization interference can be equalized with well-known blind algorithms. We also experimentally verify the analytical findings, demonstrating 112 Gb/s POLMUX-QPSK transmission with coherent detection in a non-fading free-space channel, and numerically extend the experimental results to turbulent settings by invoking the lognormal model for turbulence-induced fading. Performance gains of 5–14 dB along with a doubling of the data rate through polarization multiplexing are exhibited compared to legacy single-polarization intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) optical wireless systems. The presented analytical and experimental results indicate that the proposed approach is promising for notably increasing the data rate in last-mile free-space optical transmission.

© 2010 IEEE

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2009 (5)

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, M. Uysal, "Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8, 951-957 (2009).

A. Belmonte, J. Kahn, "Capacity of coherent free-space optical links using atmospheric compensation techniques," Opt. Exp. 17, 2763-2773 (2009).

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, B. Lankl, "DSP for coherent single-carrier receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3614-3622 (2009).

W. Lim, C. Yun, K. Kim, "BER performance analysis of radio over free-space optical systems considering laser phase noise under gamma-gamma turbulence channels," Opt. Exp. 17, 4479-4484 (2009).

K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, C. Laperle, "Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3546-3559 (2009).

2008 (3)

X. Ji, G. Ji, "Effect of turbulence on the beam quality of apertured partially coherent beams," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 25, 1246-1252 (2008).

N. Letzepis, I. Holland, W. Cowley, "The gaussian free space optical MIMO channel with Q-ary pulse position modulation," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7, 1744-1753 (2008).

N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, "Performance bounds for free-space optical MIMO systems with APD receivers in atmospheric turbulence," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, (2008).

2007 (3)

N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, R. Zarubica, "Performance evaluation of a novel converged architecture for digital-video transmission over optical wireless channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3366-3373 (2007).

N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, "Receiver optimization in turbulent free-space optical MIMO channels with APDs and Q-ary PPM," IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 19, (2007).

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, E. Korevaar, "BER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6, 2813-2819 (2007).

2006 (4)

M. Uysal, J. Li, M. Yu, "Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5, 1229-1233 (2006).

K. Kiasaleh, "Performance of coherent DPSK free-space optical communication systems in K-distributed turbulence," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 604-607 (2006).

R. Davey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, K. McCammon, "Options for future optical access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 50-56 (2006).

V. W. S. Chan, "Free-space optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4750-4762 (2006).

2005 (3)

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. Leveque, "Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1402-1412 (2005).

J. A. Anguita, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, B. V. Vasic, "Shannon capacities and error-correction codes for optical atmospheric turbulent channels," OSA J. Opt. Network 4, 586-601 (2005).

O. Korotkova, E. Wolf, "Changes in the state of polarization of a random electromagnetic beam on propagation," Opt. Commun. 246, 35-43 (2005).

2004 (1)

M. Salem, O. Korotkova, A. Dogariu, E. Wolf, "Polarization changes in partially coherent electromagnetic beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere," Waves Rand. Complex Media 14, 513-523 (2004).

2003 (2)

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Performance bounds for coded free-space optical communications through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1233-1239 (2003).

M.-C. Jeung, J.-S. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, S.-W. Namgung, J.-H. Lee, M.-Y. Cho, S.-W. Huh, Y.-S. Ahn, J.-W. Cho, J.-S. Lee, "8 10-Gb/s terrestrial optical free-space transmission over 3.4 km using an optical repeater," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 171-173 (2003).

2002 (2)

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).

J. C. Ricklin, F. M. Davidson, "Atmospheric turbulence effects on a partially coherent Gaussian beam: Implications for free-space laser communication," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 19, 856-866 (2002).

2001 (1)

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, "Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media," Opt. Eng. 40, 1554-1562 (2001).

1994 (1)

D. F. V. James, "Change of polarization of light beams on propagation in free space," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 11, (1994).

1986 (1)

1980 (1)

J. H. Churnside, C. M. McIntyre, "Heterodyne receivers for atmospheric optical communications," OSA Appl. Optics 25, 582-590 (1980).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

R. Davey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, K. McCammon, "Options for future optical access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 50-56 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, "Performance bounds for free-space optical MIMO systems with APD receivers in atmospheric turbulence," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M.-C. Jeung, J.-S. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, S.-W. Namgung, J.-H. Lee, M.-Y. Cho, S.-W. Huh, Y.-S. Ahn, J.-W. Cho, J.-S. Lee, "8 10-Gb/s terrestrial optical free-space transmission over 3.4 km using an optical repeater," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 171-173 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. (1)

N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, "Receiver optimization in turbulent free-space optical MIMO channels with APDs and Q-ary PPM," IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 19, (2007).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (4)

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. Leveque, "Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1402-1412 (2005).

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Performance bounds for coded free-space optical communications through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1233-1239 (2003).

K. Kiasaleh, "Performance of coherent DPSK free-space optical communication systems in K-distributed turbulence," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 604-607 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (4)

M. Uysal, J. Li, M. Yu, "Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5, 1229-1233 (2006).

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, E. Korevaar, "BER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6, 2813-2819 (2007).

N. Letzepis, I. Holland, W. Cowley, "The gaussian free space optical MIMO channel with Q-ary pulse position modulation," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7, 1744-1753 (2008).

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, M. Uysal, "Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8, 951-957 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, R. Zarubica, "Performance evaluation of a novel converged architecture for digital-video transmission over optical wireless channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3366-3373 (2007).

V. W. S. Chan, "Free-space optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4750-4762 (2006).

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, B. Lankl, "DSP for coherent single-carrier receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3614-3622 (2009).

K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, C. Laperle, "Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3546-3559 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (3)

D. F. V. James, "Change of polarization of light beams on propagation in free space," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 11, (1994).

J. C. Ricklin, F. M. Davidson, "Atmospheric turbulence effects on a partially coherent Gaussian beam: Implications for free-space laser communication," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 19, 856-866 (2002).

X. Ji, G. Ji, "Effect of turbulence on the beam quality of apertured partially coherent beams," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 25, 1246-1252 (2008).

Opt. Commun. (1)

O. Korotkova, E. Wolf, "Changes in the state of polarization of a random electromagnetic beam on propagation," Opt. Commun. 246, 35-43 (2005).

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, "Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media," Opt. Eng. 40, 1554-1562 (2001).

Opt. Exp. (2)

W. Lim, C. Yun, K. Kim, "BER performance analysis of radio over free-space optical systems considering laser phase noise under gamma-gamma turbulence channels," Opt. Exp. 17, 4479-4484 (2009).

A. Belmonte, J. Kahn, "Capacity of coherent free-space optical links using atmospheric compensation techniques," Opt. Exp. 17, 2763-2773 (2009).

OSA Appl. Optics (1)

J. H. Churnside, C. M. McIntyre, "Heterodyne receivers for atmospheric optical communications," OSA Appl. Optics 25, 582-590 (1980).

OSA J. Opt. Network (1)

J. A. Anguita, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, B. V. Vasic, "Shannon capacities and error-correction codes for optical atmospheric turbulent channels," OSA J. Opt. Network 4, 586-601 (2005).

Waves Rand. Complex Media (1)

M. Salem, O. Korotkova, A. Dogariu, E. Wolf, "Polarization changes in partially coherent electromagnetic beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere," Waves Rand. Complex Media 14, 513-523 (2004).

Other (14)

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation With Applications (SPIE Press, 2001).

E. Ciaramella, Y. Arimoto, G. Contestabile, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, V. Guarino, M. Matsumoto, "1.28 terabits/s (32$\,\times\,$40 Gbit/s) WDM transmission over a double-pass free-space optical link," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009).

N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, "WiMAX access using optical wireless technology with heterodyne detection in turbulent atmospheric channels," Proc. 2006 IEEE GLOBECOM (2006).

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, T. Wang, "10 Gb/s free-space optical transmission using OFDM," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2008).

E. Ip, D. Büchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, M. M. Fejer, "QPSK transmission over free-space link at 3.8 m using coherent detection with wavelength conversion," Proc. ECOC (2008).

M. Cvijetic, Coherent and Nonlinear Lightwave Communications (Artech House, 1996).

D. L. Fried, "Optical heterodyne detection of an atmospherically distorted signal wave front," Proc. IEEE (1967) pp. 57-67.

J. W. Strohbehn, Laser Beam Propagations in the Atmosphere (Springer, 1978).

V. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (Springer-Verlag, 1978).

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, T. Wang, "108 Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct detection," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009).

FlightLite G Datasheet LightPointe Inc. (2009) http://www.lightpointe.com/downloads/datasheets/FlightLite_G.pdf.

T. Koonen, "Trends in optical access and in building networks," Proc. ECOC (2008).

S. G. Wilson, Digital Modulation and Coding (Prentice Hall, 1996).

X. Zhou, J. Yu, D. Qian, "A novel DSP algorithm for improving the performance of digital coherent receiver using single-ended photo detection," Proc. ECOC (2008).

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