Abstract

In this paper, we implement on a silicon-on-insulator (SoI) platform a photonic-crystal demultiplexer that operates on the principle of mini-stopbands of broader waveguides. Previous InP-based membrane versions showed modest crosstalk at 10 nm spacing. Here, we implement a second cavity in the form of a second parallel waveguide almost identical to the core one. Simulations employing three-modes coupled-mode theory and finite-difference time-domain help optimizing the coupling. The experimental realization with deep ultraviolet exposure and grating couplers is the first of this demux strategy on SoI. It successfully shows crosstalk in the 15–20 dB range on a very small footprint.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM devices, principles, design, and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
  2. Y. Barbarin, X. J. M. Leijtens, E. A. J. M. Bente, C. M. Louzao, J. R. Kooiman, M. K. Smit, "Extremely small AWG demultiplexer fabricated on InP by using a double-etch process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2478-2480 (2004).
  3. B. Momeni, J. Huang, M. Soltani, M. Askari, S. Mohammadi, M. Rakhshanderoo, A. Adibi, "Compact wavelength demultiplexing using focusing negative index photonic crystal superprisms," Opt. Exp. 14, 2413-2422 (2006).
  4. D. Bernier, X. Le Roux, A. Lupu, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, "Compact, low cross-talk CWDM demultiplexer using photonic crystal superprism," Opt. Exp. 16, 17209-17214 (2008).
  5. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewic, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
  6. H. Takano, Y. Akahane, T. Asano, S. Noda, "In-plane type channel-drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2226-2228 (2004).
  7. F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photon. 1, 65-71 (2007).
  8. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).
  9. E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G.-H. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, K. Janiak, "Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral outcoupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 101107-1-101107-3 (2005).
  10. L. Martinelli, H. Benisty, O. Khayam, G. H. Duan, H. Heidrich, K. Janiak, "Analysis and optimization of compact demultiplexer monitor based on photonic crystal waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2385-2394 (2007).
  11. L. Martinelli, H. Benisty, O. Drisse, E. Derouin, F. Pommereau, O. Legouézigou, G. H. Duan, "Impact of lithographic grid irregularity assessed on photonic crystal device selectivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 282-284 (2007).
  12. M. Ayre, C. Cambournac, O. Khayam, H. Benisty, T. Stomeo, T. F. Krauss, "Photonic crystal waveguides for coarse-selectivity devices," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 19-25 (2008).
  13. H. Hofmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, D. F. G. Gallagher, H. Benisty, "Integrated wavelength monitoring in a photonic-crystal tunable laser diode," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 205-212 (2008).
  14. T. Stomeo, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, C. Cambournac, H. Benisty, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, T. F. Krauss, "Integration of grating couplers with a compact photonic crystal demultiplexer on an InP membrane," Opt. Lett. 33, 884-886 (2008).
  15. F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Nanophotonic polarization diversity demultiplexer chip," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 417-425 (2009).
  16. F. Van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, T. Stomeo, T. F. Krauss, M. Ayre, C. Cambournac, H. Benisty, "Multifunctional photonic crystal compact demux-detector on InP," OFC/NFOEC 2008 San DiegoCA () Paper OThM5.
  17. H. Benisty, C. Cambournac, O. Khayam, M. Ayre, F. Van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, T. Stomeo, T. F. Krauss, M. Kamp, C. Hofmann, A. Forchel, D. F. G. Gallagher, "Compact integrated photonic crystal demultiplexer for emitting and receiving InP photonic integrated circuits," ECOC 2008 BruxellesBelgium ().
  18. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, "Towards foundry approach for silicon photonics: Silicon photonics platform ePIXfab," Electron. Lett. 45, 581-582 (2009).
  19. S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, R. Houdré, C. Weisbuch, "Mini stopbands of a one-dimensional system: The channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 63, 113311- (2001).
  20. S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, "Transmission properties of two-dimensional photonic crystal channel waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 171-181 (2002).
  21. S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré, "Coupled-mode theory and propagation losses in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Exp. 11, 1490-1496 (2003).
  22. S. Olivier, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Compact and fault-tolerant photonic crystal add-drop filter," Opt. Lett. 28, 2246-2248 (2003).
  23. H. Benisty, "Modal analysis of optical guides with two-dimensional photonic bandgap boundaries," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7483-7492 (1996).
  24. H. Benisty, D. Labilloy, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, A. Béraud, D. Cassagne, C. Jouanin, "Radiation losses of waveguide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals: Positive role of the substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 532-534 (2000).
  25. R. Ferrini, R. Houdré, H. Benisty, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, "Radiation losses in planar photonic crystals: Two-dimensional representation of hole depth and shape by an imaginary dielectric constant," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 20, 469-478 (2003).

2009 (2)

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Nanophotonic polarization diversity demultiplexer chip," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 417-425 (2009).

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, "Towards foundry approach for silicon photonics: Silicon photonics platform ePIXfab," Electron. Lett. 45, 581-582 (2009).

2008 (4)

M. Ayre, C. Cambournac, O. Khayam, H. Benisty, T. Stomeo, T. F. Krauss, "Photonic crystal waveguides for coarse-selectivity devices," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 19-25 (2008).

H. Hofmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, D. F. G. Gallagher, H. Benisty, "Integrated wavelength monitoring in a photonic-crystal tunable laser diode," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 205-212 (2008).

T. Stomeo, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, C. Cambournac, H. Benisty, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, T. F. Krauss, "Integration of grating couplers with a compact photonic crystal demultiplexer on an InP membrane," Opt. Lett. 33, 884-886 (2008).

D. Bernier, X. Le Roux, A. Lupu, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, "Compact, low cross-talk CWDM demultiplexer using photonic crystal superprism," Opt. Exp. 16, 17209-17214 (2008).

2007 (3)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photon. 1, 65-71 (2007).

L. Martinelli, H. Benisty, O. Khayam, G. H. Duan, H. Heidrich, K. Janiak, "Analysis and optimization of compact demultiplexer monitor based on photonic crystal waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2385-2394 (2007).

L. Martinelli, H. Benisty, O. Drisse, E. Derouin, F. Pommereau, O. Legouézigou, G. H. Duan, "Impact of lithographic grid irregularity assessed on photonic crystal device selectivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 282-284 (2007).

2006 (2)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

B. Momeni, J. Huang, M. Soltani, M. Askari, S. Mohammadi, M. Rakhshanderoo, A. Adibi, "Compact wavelength demultiplexing using focusing negative index photonic crystal superprisms," Opt. Exp. 14, 2413-2422 (2006).

2005 (1)

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G.-H. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, K. Janiak, "Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral outcoupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 101107-1-101107-3 (2005).

2004 (3)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewic, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).

H. Takano, Y. Akahane, T. Asano, S. Noda, "In-plane type channel-drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2226-2228 (2004).

Y. Barbarin, X. J. M. Leijtens, E. A. J. M. Bente, C. M. Louzao, J. R. Kooiman, M. K. Smit, "Extremely small AWG demultiplexer fabricated on InP by using a double-etch process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2478-2480 (2004).

2003 (3)

S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré, "Coupled-mode theory and propagation losses in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Exp. 11, 1490-1496 (2003).

S. Olivier, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Compact and fault-tolerant photonic crystal add-drop filter," Opt. Lett. 28, 2246-2248 (2003).

R. Ferrini, R. Houdré, H. Benisty, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, "Radiation losses in planar photonic crystals: Two-dimensional representation of hole depth and shape by an imaginary dielectric constant," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 20, 469-478 (2003).

2002 (1)

S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, "Transmission properties of two-dimensional photonic crystal channel waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 171-181 (2002).

2001 (1)

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, R. Houdré, C. Weisbuch, "Mini stopbands of a one-dimensional system: The channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 63, 113311- (2001).

2000 (1)

H. Benisty, D. Labilloy, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, A. Béraud, D. Cassagne, C. Jouanin, "Radiation losses of waveguide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals: Positive role of the substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 532-534 (2000).

1996 (2)

H. Benisty, "Modal analysis of optical guides with two-dimensional photonic bandgap boundaries," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7483-7492 (1996).

M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM devices, principles, design, and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Takano, Y. Akahane, T. Asano, S. Noda, "In-plane type channel-drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2226-2228 (2004).

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G.-H. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, K. Janiak, "Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral outcoupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 101107-1-101107-3 (2005).

H. Benisty, D. Labilloy, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, A. Béraud, D. Cassagne, C. Jouanin, "Radiation losses of waveguide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals: Positive role of the substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 532-534 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, "Towards foundry approach for silicon photonics: Silicon photonics platform ePIXfab," Electron. Lett. 45, 581-582 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM devices, principles, design, and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. Barbarin, X. J. M. Leijtens, E. A. J. M. Bente, C. M. Louzao, J. R. Kooiman, M. K. Smit, "Extremely small AWG demultiplexer fabricated on InP by using a double-etch process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2478-2480 (2004).

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewic, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).

L. Martinelli, H. Benisty, O. Drisse, E. Derouin, F. Pommereau, O. Legouézigou, G. H. Duan, "Impact of lithographic grid irregularity assessed on photonic crystal device selectivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 282-284 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Benisty, "Modal analysis of optical guides with two-dimensional photonic bandgap boundaries," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7483-7492 (1996).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

L. Martinelli, H. Benisty, O. Khayam, G. H. Duan, H. Heidrich, K. Janiak, "Analysis and optimization of compact demultiplexer monitor based on photonic crystal waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2385-2394 (2007).

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Nanophotonic polarization diversity demultiplexer chip," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 417-425 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (1)

R. Ferrini, R. Houdré, H. Benisty, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, "Radiation losses in planar photonic crystals: Two-dimensional representation of hole depth and shape by an imaginary dielectric constant," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 20, 469-478 (2003).

Nature Photon. (1)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photon. 1, 65-71 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (3)

B. Momeni, J. Huang, M. Soltani, M. Askari, S. Mohammadi, M. Rakhshanderoo, A. Adibi, "Compact wavelength demultiplexing using focusing negative index photonic crystal superprisms," Opt. Exp. 14, 2413-2422 (2006).

D. Bernier, X. Le Roux, A. Lupu, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, "Compact, low cross-talk CWDM demultiplexer using photonic crystal superprism," Opt. Exp. 16, 17209-17214 (2008).

S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré, "Coupled-mode theory and propagation losses in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Exp. 11, 1490-1496 (2003).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, "Transmission properties of two-dimensional photonic crystal channel waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 171-181 (2002).

Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. (2)

M. Ayre, C. Cambournac, O. Khayam, H. Benisty, T. Stomeo, T. F. Krauss, "Photonic crystal waveguides for coarse-selectivity devices," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 19-25 (2008).

H. Hofmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, D. F. G. Gallagher, H. Benisty, "Integrated wavelength monitoring in a photonic-crystal tunable laser diode," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 205-212 (2008).

Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter (1)

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, R. Houdré, C. Weisbuch, "Mini stopbands of a one-dimensional system: The channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 63, 113311- (2001).

Other (2)

F. Van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, T. Stomeo, T. F. Krauss, M. Ayre, C. Cambournac, H. Benisty, "Multifunctional photonic crystal compact demux-detector on InP," OFC/NFOEC 2008 San DiegoCA () Paper OThM5.

H. Benisty, C. Cambournac, O. Khayam, M. Ayre, F. Van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, T. Stomeo, T. F. Krauss, M. Kamp, C. Hofmann, A. Forchel, D. F. G. Gallagher, "Compact integrated photonic crystal demultiplexer for emitting and receiving InP photonic integrated circuits," ECOC 2008 BruxellesBelgium ().

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